Correct Answer : Option (B) - 13th Edition
The 13th edition of bilateral exercise between the Indian and the Royal Oman navies, Naseem Al Bahr-2022, commenced off the coast of Oman on 20 November 2022.
* The exercise is being conducted in two phases : the Harbour Phase and the Sea Phase. The Indian Navy’s guided missile frigate Trikand and Offshore Patrol Vessel Sumitra, with their integral helicopters, and the maritime patrol aircraft, Dornier, are participating in the exercise.
* The exercise facilitates operational-level interaction between the two navies to foster mutual cooperation and enhance good order at sea.
* The exercise also aims to strengthen the ancient maritime and cultural linkages between India and Oman. Friendly sports fixtures were conducted amongst participants from the two navies on the sidelines of the conference.
* The exercise aims to intensify maritime exchanges between the two countries and enhance maritime security in the region.
* India has ancient maritime tradition and maritime interaction with Oman dates back to over 4000 years BC. Bilateral relations between both countries were formally established with signing of 1953 Indo-Oman Treaty of friendship, Navigation and Commerce. It was first between India and Arab country.
* Since then, bilateral naval exercises have contributed to strengthening of bilateral ties between both countries. The first exercise Indian Navy with Royal Navy of Oman was conducted in 1993.
* Further signing of MoU on Defence Cooperation in December 2005 and subsequent establishment of Joint Military Cooperation (JMC) in March 2006 had set foundation for increased defence cooperation. The naval cooperation between both countries since then has gradually increased in scope and scale.