IPC Sections
IPC Section 30 : “Valuable security”
The words “valuable security” denote a document which is, or purports to be, a document whereby any legal right is created, extended, transferred, restricted, extinguished or released, or who hereby any person acknowledges that he lies under legal liability, or has not a certain legal right.
 
illustrations :
 
i) A writes his name on the back of a bill of exchange. As the effect of this endorsement is to transfer the right to the bill to any person who may become the lawful holder of it, the endorsement is a “valuable security”.
IPC Section 31 : “A will”
The words “a will” denote any testamentary document.
IPC Section 32 : Words referring to acts include illegal omissions
In every part of this Code, except where a contrary intention appears from the context, words which refer to acts done extend also to illegal omissions.
IPC Section 33 : “Act”. “Omission”
The word “act” denotes as well as series of acts as a single act: the word “omission” denotes as well a series of omissions as a single omission.
IPC Section 34 : Acts done by several persons in furtherance of common intention
When a criminal act is done by several persons in furtherance of the common intention of all, each of such persons is liable for that act in the same manner as if it were done by him alone.
IPC Section 35 : When such an act is criminal by reason of its being done with a criminal knowledge or intention
Whenever an act, which is criminal only by reason of its being done with a criminal knowledge or intention, is done by several persons, each of such persons who joins in the act with such knowledge or intention is liable for the act in the same manner as if the act were done by him alone with that knowledge or intention.
IPC Section 36 : Effect caused partly by act and partly by omission
Wherever the causing of a certain effect, or an attempt to cause that effect, by an act or by an omission, is an offence, it is to be understood that the causing of that effect partly by an act and partly by an omission is the same offence.
 
 
illustrations : 
 
A intentionally causes Z&‘s death, partly by illegally omitting to give Z food, and party by beating Z. A has committed murder.
IPC Section 37 : Co-operation by doing one of several acts constituting an offence
When an offence is committed by means of several acts, whoever intentionally co-operates in the commission of that offence by doing any one of those acts, either singly or jointly with any other person, commits that offence.

 
illustrations : 
 
i) A and B agree to murder Z by severally and at different times giving him small doses of poison. A and B administer the poison according to the agreement with intent to murder Z. Z dies from the effects the several doses of poison so administered to him. Here A and B intentionally co operate in the commission of murder and as each of them does an act by which the death is caused, they are both guilty of the offence though their acts are separate.

ii) A and B are joint jailors, and as such have the charge of Z, a prisoner, alternatively for six hours at a time. A and B, intending to cause Z&‘s death, knowingly co-operate in causing that effect by illegally omitting, each during the time of his attendance, to furnish Z with food supplied to them for that purpose. Z dues of hunger. Both A and B are guilty of the murder of Z.

iii) A, a jailor, has the charge of Z, a prisoner. A, intending to cause Z&‘s death, illegally omits to supply Z with food; in consequence of which Z is much reduced in strength, but the starvation is not sufficient to cause his death. A is dismissed from his office, and B succeeds him. B, without collusion or co-operation with A, illegally omits to supply Z with food, knowing that he is likely thereby to cause Z&‘s death. Z dies of hunger. B is guilty of murder, but, as A did not co-operate with B. A is guilty only of an attempt to commit murder.
IPC Section 38 : Persons concerned in criminal Act may be guilty of different offences
Where several persons are engaged or concerned in the commission of a criminal act, they may be guilty of different offences by means of that act.


illustrations :
 
i) A attacks Z under such circumstances of grave provocation that his killing of Z would be only culpable homicide not amounting to murder. B, having ill-will towards Z and intending to kill him, and not having been subject to the provocation, assists A in killing Z. Here, though A and B are both engaged in causing Z&‘s death, B is guilty of murder, and A is guilty only of culpable homicide.
IPC Section 39 : “Voluntarily”
A person is said to cause an effect “voluntarily” when he causes it by means whereby he intended to cause it, or by means which, at the time of employing those means, he knew or had reason to believe to be likely to cause it.
 
 
illustrations :
 
i) A sets fire, by night, to an inhabited house in a large town, for the purpose of facilitating a robbery and thus causes the death of a person. Here, A may not have intended to cause death; and may even be sorry that death has been caused by his act; yet, if he knew that he was likely to cause death, he has caused death voluntarily.