HTML5 (No space between "HTML" and "5")is a markup language used for structuring and presenting content on the World Wide Web. It is the fifth and current version of the HTML standard.
It was published in 28 October 2014, W3C also published an HTML 5.1 Candidate Recommendation on 21 June 2016. The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) to improve the language with support for the latest multimedia, while keeping it both easily readable by humans and consistently understood by computers and devices such as web browsers. HTML5 is intended to subsume not only HTML 4, but also XHTML 1 and Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 HTML.
The CSS was started to develop around 1998. And till 2009, it was under development. The first working draft of CSS3 came in 19-01-2001. but it was initially declared early in the June 1999. The main difference between css2 and css3 is Media Queries, Namespaces, Selectors Level 3, Color.
CSS3 has been split into "modules". It contains the "old CSS specification". In addition, new modules are added.
Bootstrap 4 alpha 1 was released on 19th August 2015. Since then there have been many alpha releases. And finally after that on 10th August 2017, Bootstrap released the first beta for the version 4 of Bootstrap. Bootstrap 4 Beta 2 was released on October 19th, 2017. The bootstrap is world's most popular frontend framework for building or developing responsive websites, mobile-first sites and web applications.
Easy to use : Anybody with just basic knowledge of HTML and CSS can start using Bootstrap 4
Responsive features : Bootstrap's responsive CSS adjusts to phones, tablets, and desktops
Mobile-first approach : In Bootstrap 4, mobile-first styles are part of the core framework
Browser compatibility : Bootstrap 4 is compatible with all modern browsers (Chrome, Firefox, Internet Explorer 10+, Safari, and Opera).
Materialize is a User Interface (UI) component library. Introduced by Google (2014 – Present), Material Design is a language that combines the classic principles of successful design. Materialize UI components are mainly used to create innovative websites, web apps, android apps,.. and finally you create faster, beautiful and responsive websites.
The Materialized websites are fully compatible with PC, tablets, and mobile devices.
Materialize is by design very minimal and flat. It is considering the fact that it is much easier to add new CSS rules than to overwrite the existing CSS rules. It supports shadows and bold colors. The colors and shades remain uniform across various platforms and devices.