PHP Operators
PHP Operators are used to perform operations on variables and values. PHP Operators can be categorized in following groups :

• Arithmetic operators
• Assignment operators
• Comparison operators
• Increment/Decrement operators
• Logical operators
• String operators
• Array operators
PHP Arithmetic operators

The PHP arithmetic operators are used to perform common arithmetical operations, such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, Modulus. The all PHP arithmetic operators are following :

Operator Name Example Result
+ Addition \$x + \$y Sum of \$x and \$y
- Subtraction \$x - \$y Difference of \$x and \$y
* Multiplication \$x * \$y Product of \$x and \$y
/ Division \$x / \$y Quotient of \$x and \$y
% Modulus \$x % \$y Remainder of \$x divided by \$y
``````<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<title>PHP Arithmetic operators</title>

<body>

<?php
\$x = 9;
\$y = 7;

echo "Addition : ".(\$x + \$y);
echo "<br />(or)<br />";

echo (\$x + \$y);
echo "<br /><br />";

echo "Subtraction : ".(\$x - \$y);
echo "<br /><br />";

echo "Multiplication : ".(\$x * \$y);
echo "<br /><br />";

echo "Division : ".(\$x / \$y);
echo "<br /><br />";

echo "Modulus : ".(\$x % \$y);
?>

</body>
</html>``````
Output :
PHP Assignment operators

The assignment operators are used to assign values to variables.

Operator Expression Description
x = y x = y Assign
\$x+= \$y \$x = \$x + \$y Adds 2 numbers and assigns the result to the first.
\$x-= \$y \$x = \$x -\$y Subtracts 2 numbers and assigns the result to the first.
\$x*= \$y \$x = \$x*\$y Multiplies 2 numbers and assigns the result to the first.
\$x/= \$y \$x =\$x/\$y Divides 2 numbers and assigns the result to the first.
\$x%= \$y \$x = \$x%\$y Computes the modulus of 2 numbers and assigns the result to the first.
``````<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<title>PHP Assignment operators</title>

<body>

<?php
\$x = 9;
echo \$x;
echo "<br />";

\$x = 15;
\$x += 7;
echo \$x;
echo "<br />";

\$x = 35;
\$x -= 10;
echo \$x;
echo "<br />";

\$x = 7;
\$x *= 20;
echo \$x;
echo "<br />";

\$x = 45;
\$x /= 27;
echo \$x;
echo "<br />";

\$x = 54;
\$x %= 23;
echo \$x;
?>

</body>
</html>``````
Output :
PHP Comparison operators

The comparison operators are used to compare two values (numbers or strings) as arguments and evaluate to either TRUE or FALSE.

Operator Name Example Result
== Equal \$x == \$y True if \$x is equal to \$y
=== Identical \$x === \$y True if \$x is equal to \$y , and they are of the same type
!= Not equal \$x != \$y True if \$x is not equal to \$y
<> Not equal \$x <> \$y True if \$x is not equal to \$y
!== Not identical \$x !== \$y True if \$x is not equal to \$y , or they are not of the same type
< Less than \$x < \$y True if \$x is less than \$y
> Greater than \$x > \$y True if \$x is greater than \$y
>= Greater than or equal to \$x >= \$y True if \$x is greater than or equal to \$y
<= Less than or equal to \$x <= \$y True if \$x is less than or equal to \$y
``````<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<title>PHP Comparison operators</title>

<body>

<?php
\$x = 18;
\$y = 25;
\$z = "18";

var_dump(\$x == \$z);
echo "<br>";

var_dump(\$x === \$z);
echo "<br>";

var_dump(\$x != \$y);
echo "<br>";

var_dump(\$x !== \$z);
echo "<br>";

var_dump(\$x < \$y);
echo "<br>";

var_dump(\$x > \$y);
echo "<br>";

var_dump(\$x <= \$y);
echo "<br>";

var_dump(\$x >= \$y);
?>

</body>
</html>``````
Output :
PHP Increment/Decrement operators

The increment/decrement operators are used to increment/decrement a variable's value.

Operator Name Description
++\$x Pre-increment Increments \$x by one, then returns \$x
\$x++ Post-increment Returns \$x , then increments \$x by one
--\$x Pre-decrement Decrements \$x by one, then returns \$x
\$x-- Post-decrement Returns \$x , then decrements \$x by one
``````<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<title>PHP Increment/Decrement operators</title>

<body>

<?php
\$x = 9;
echo ++\$x;
echo "<br />";
echo \$x;
echo "<br /><br />";

\$x = 9;
echo \$x++;
echo "<br />";
echo \$x;
echo "<br /><br />";

\$x = 9;
echo --\$x;
echo "<br />";
echo \$x;
echo "<br /><br />";

\$x = 9;
echo \$x--;
echo "<br />";
echo \$x;
?>
</body>
</html>``````
Output :
PHP Logical operators

The logical operators are typically used to combine conditional statements.

Operator Name Example Result
and And \$x and \$y True if both \$x and \$y are true
or Or \$x or \$y True if either \$x or \$y is true
xor Xor \$x xor \$y True if either \$x or \$y is true, but not both
&& And \$x && \$y True if both \$x and \$y are true
|| Or \$x || \$y True if either \$x or \$y is true
! Not !\$x True if \$x is not true
``````<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<title>PHP Logical operators</title>

<body>

<?php
\$year = 2020;
if((\$year % 400 == 0) || ((\$year % 100 != 0) && (\$year % 4 == 0))){
echo "\$year is a leap year.";
} else{
echo "\$year is not a leap year.";
}
?>

</body>
</html>``````
Output :
PHP String operators

There are two string operators : concatenation operator ('.') and concatenating assignment operator ('.=').

 Operator Example Result Name . Concatenation \$str1 . \$str2 Concatenation of \$str1 and \$str2 .= Concatenation assignment \$str1 .= \$str2 Appends the \$str2 to the \$str1
``````<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<title>PHP String operators</title>

<body>

<?php
\$x = "Free Time";
\$y = " Learning..!";
echo \$x . \$y;
echo "<br /><br />";

\$x .= \$y;
echo \$x;
?>

</body>
</html>``````
Output :
PHP Array operators

The PHP array operators are used to compare arrays.

 Operator Example Result Name + Union \$x + \$y Union of \$x and \$y == Equality \$x == \$y True if \$x and \$y have the same key/value pairs === Identity \$x === \$y True if \$x and \$y have the same key/value pairs in the same order and of the same types != Inequality \$x != \$y True if \$x is not equal to \$y <> Inequality \$x <> \$y True if \$x is not equal to \$y !== Non-identity \$x !== \$y True if \$x is not identical to \$y
``````<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<title>PHP Array operators</title>

<body>

<?php
\$x = array("a" => "HTML", "b" => "CSS", "c" => "JavaScript");
\$y = array("d" => "HTML5", "e" => "CSS3", "f" => "AngularJS");
\$z = \$x + \$y;
var_dump(\$z);
echo "<hr>";

var_dump(\$x == \$y);
echo "<br /><br />";

var_dump(\$x === \$y);
echo "<br /><br />";

var_dump(\$x != \$y);
echo "<br /><br />";

var_dump(\$x <> \$y);
echo "<br /><br />";

var_dump(\$x !== \$y);
?>

</body>
</html>``````
Output :