Python
Python Data Types
There are different types of python data types. Every value in Python has a datatype. Since everything is an object in Python programming, data types are actually classes and variables are instance (object) of these classes. Some built-in python data types are below :

1. Python Data Type – Numbers :
Python supports both integers and floating point numbers. There’s no type declaration to distinguish them; Python tells them apart by the presence or absence of a decimal point.
>>> type(1)
<class 'int'>
>>> isinstance(1, int)
True
>>> 1+1
2
>>> 1 + 2.7
3.7
>>> type(3.7)
<class 'float'>

You can use the type() function to check the type of any value or variable. As you might expect, 1 is an int.

Similarly, you can use the isinstance() function to check whether a value or variable is of a given type.

Adding an int to an int yields an int.

Adding an int to a float yields a float. Python coerces the int into a float to perform the addition, then returns a float as the result.

2. Python Data Type – String :

String is a sequence of characters. Python supports unicode characters. Generally strings are represented by either single or double quotes.

>>> a = "string in a double quote"
>>> b = 'string in a single quote'
>>> print(a)
string in a double quote
>>> print(b)
string in a single quote
>>> # using ',' to concate the two or several strings
>>> print(a,"concated with",b)
string in a double quote concated with string in a single quote
>>> #using '+' to concate the two or several strings
>>> print(a+" concated with "+b)
string in a double quote concated with string in a single quote
>>> 

3. Python Data Type – List :

List is a versatile data type exclusive in Python. In a sense it is same as array in C/C++. But interesting thing about list in Python is it can simultaneously hold different type of data. Formally list a ordered sequence of some data written using square brackets([]) and commas(,).

>>> #list of having only integers
>>> a = [1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9]
>>> print(a)
[1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9]
>>> #list of having only strings
>>> b=["hello","Free Time Learning"]
>>> print(b)
['hello', 'Free Time Learning']
>>> #list of having both integers and strings
>>> c= ["Hi","F T L",1,2,3,"Bye"]
>>> print(c)
['Hi', 'F T L', 1, 2, 3, 'Bye']
>>> #index are 0 based. this will print a single character
>>> print(c[1]) #this will print "you" in list c
F T L
>>> 

4. Python Data Type – Tuple :

Tuple is another data type which is a sequence of data similar to list. But it is immutable. That means data in a tuple is write protected. Data in a tuple is written using parenthesis and commas.

>>> #tuple having only integer type of data.
>>> a=(1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9)
>>> print(a) #prints the whole tuple values
(1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9)
>>> #tuple having multiple type of data.
>>> b=("hello", 1,2,3,"ftl")
>>> print(b) #prints the whole tuple
('hello', 1, 2, 3, 'ftl')
>>> #index of tuples are also 0 based.
>>> print(b[4]) #this prints a single element in a tuple, in this case "flt"
ftl
>>> 

5. Python Data Type – Set :

Set is an unordered collection of unique items. Set is defined by values separated by comma inside braces { }. Items in a set are not ordered.

>>> a = {5,2,3,1,4}
>>> # printing set variable
>>> a = {2,6,3,5,4,1}
>>> # printing set variable
>>> print("a = ", a)
a =  {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6}
>>> # data type of variable a
>>> print(type(a))
<class 'set'>
>>> 

6. Python Data Type – Dictionary :

Python Dictionary is an unordered sequence of data of key-value pair form. It is similar to the hash table type. Dictionaries are written within curly braces in the form key:value. It is very useful to retrieve data in an optimized way among large amount of data.

>>> #a sample dictionary variable
>>> a = {1:"first name",2:"last name", "age":27}
>>> #print value having key=1
>>> print(a[1])
first name
>>> #print value having key=2
>>> print(a[2])
last name
>>> #print value having key="age"
>>> print(a["age"])
27
>>> 

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