Python Lists
Lists are very similar to arrays and lists are one of the great datastructures in Python. They can contain any type of variable, and they can contain as many variables as you wish. Lists can also be iterated over in a very simple manner.

Basic knowledge of lists is requrired to be able to solve some problems that we want to solve in this chapter.

Here is a list of numbers.
>>> x = [1, 2, 3]

And here is a list of strings.

>>> x = ["Hello", "World"]

List can be heterogeneous. Here is a list containings integers, strings and another list.

>>> x = [1, 2, "Hello", "World", ["Another", "list", "Item"]]
>>> print(x)
[1, 2, 'Hello', 'World', ['Another', 'list', 'Item']]

The built-in function len works for lists as well.

>>> x = [1, 2, 3]
>>> print(x)
[1, 2, 3]
>>> len(x)

List Index

We can use the index operator [] to access an item in a list. Index starts from 0. So, a list having 5 elements will have index from 0 to 4.

Trying to access an element other that this will raise an IndexError. The index must be an integer. We can't use float or other types, this will result into TypeError.

Nested list are accessed using nested indexing.

>>> my_list = ['l','e','a','r','n']
>>> print(my_list[0])
>>> print(my_list[1])
>>> print(my_list[2])
>>> # Nested List
>>> n_list = ["Happy", [2,0,1,5]]
>>> # Nested indexing
>>> print(n_list[0][1])
>>> print(n_list[0][4])
>>> print(n_list[1][3])

Delete or remove elements from a list

We can delete one or more items from a list using the keyword del. It can even delete the list entirely.

>>> my_list = ['p','r','o','b','l','e','m']
>>> # delete one item
>>> del my_list[2]
>>> # Output: ['p', 'r', 'b', 'l', 'e', 'm']
>>> print(my_list)
['p', 'r', 'b', 'l', 'e', 'm']
>>> # delete multiple items
>>> del my_list[1:5]
>>> # Output: ['p', 'm']
>>> print(my_list)
['p', 'm']
>>> # delete entire list
>>> del my_list
>>> # Error: List not defined
>>> print(my_list)
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "<pyshell#39>", line 1, in <module>
NameError: name 'my_list' is not defined

Python list Methods

Methods that are available with list object in Python programming are tabulated below.

They are accessed as list.method(). Some of the methods have already been used above.

Python List Methods
append()Add an element to the end of the list
extend()Add all elements of a list to the another list
insert()Insert an item at the defined index
remove()Removes an item from the list
pop()Removes and returns an element at the given index
clear()Removes all items from the list
index()Returns the index of the first matched item
count()Returns the count of number of items passed as an argument
sort()Sort items in a list in ascending order
reverse()Reverse the order of items in the list
copy()Returns a shallow copy of the list
Python list method examples
>>> my_list = [9, 8, 7, 6, 3, 4, 5, 9]
>>> print(my_list.index(9))
>>> print(my_list.count(9))
>>> my_list.sort()
>>> print(my_list)
[3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 9]
>>> my_list.reverse()
>>> print(my_list)
[9, 9, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3]

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