UPSC QUESTIONS
UPSC 2019 (Prelims & Mains) Questions
1 .
With reference to Mughal India, what is/are the difference/differences between Jagirdar and Zamindar? 
 
  1. Jagirdars were holders of land assignments in lieu of judicial and police duties, whereas Zamindars were holders of revenue rights without obligation to perform any duty other than revenue collection.
  2. Land assignments to Jagirdars were hereditary and revenue rights of Zamindars were not hereditary.
 
Select the correct answer using the code given below : 
A)
1 only
B)
2 only
C)
Both 1 and 2
D)
Neither 1 nor 2

Correct Answer : Option (D) - Neither 1 nor 2

Note :

During Akbar's period all the territory was broadly divided into two : khalisa and jagir. The revenue from the first went to Imperial treasury and that from jagir was assigned to jagirdars in lieu of their salary in cash (naqd) according to their rank. Right to collect revenue was to utilise the same for their salary and to meet their military obligations. The judicial and police functions were performed locally by zamindars. 
 
An important feature of the jagir system was shifting of jagir-holders from one jagir to another for administrative reasons. This system of transfers checked the jagirdars from developing local roots. Thus jagirs were transferable and could be seized too. Zamindars on the other hand were hereditary. The zamindars were present in practically every part of the Mughal Empire and held the most significant position in the agrarian structure of Mughal India. The word zamindar is derived from two Persian words-zamin (land) and dar (holder).

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Year : 2019
Category : History
A)
The ceiling laws were aimed at family holdings and not individual holdings.
B)
The major aim of land reforms was providing agricultural land to all the landless.
C)
It resulted in cultivation of cash crops as a predominant form of cultivation.
D)
Land reforms permitted no exemptions to the ceiling limits.

Correct Answer : Option (B) - The major aim of land reforms was providing agricultural land to all the landless.

Note :

Major weakness of Land ceiling laws was that they were aimed at individual holdings. It allowed many zamindars to transfer land notionally to their relatives and thus escape the ceiling. The reason for land reforms was providing land to all landless people (redistribution) because landlessness was considered as one major reason of poverty and exploitation. Cultivation of cash crops require much more inputs than mere availability of holdings. Cash crops, during British time, were induced by force while in post-independence, major transformation for cash crops has happened where capital, market access, technology and irrigation are available. After the Second Plan, a large numbers of exemptions kicked in for certain categories of land – tea/rubber plantations, orchards, dairying etc to promote certain kind of capitalist expansion in place of absentee landlordism.

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Year : 2019
Category : History
3 .
Consider the following statements about 'the Charter Act of 1813' :
 
  1. It ended the trade monopoly of the East India Company in India except for trade in tea and trade with China.
  2. It asserted the sovereignty of the British Crown over the Indian territories held by the Company. 
  3. The revenues of India were now controlled by the British Parliament. 
 
Which of the statements given above are correct?
A)
1 and 2 only
B)
2 and 3 only
C)
1 and 3 only
D)
1, 2 and 3

Correct Answer : Option (A) - 1 and 2 only

Note :

The 1813 Act ended the Company‘s monopoly over trade in India but the company retained trade with China and the trade in tea. So, statement 1 is correct. (Spectrum 2017, 566).

The Act asserted the - undoubted sovereignty of the Crown of the United Kingdom‖ over Indian territories. So, statement 2 is correct (Plassey to Partition 2012, 79).

The revenues of India were controlled by the British parliament through Pitts India Act 1784.

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Year : 2019
Category : History
4 .
With reference to Swadeshi Movement, consider the following statements : 
 
  1. It contributed to the revival of the indigenous artisan crafts and industries. 
  2. The National Council of Education was established as a part of Swadeshi Movement. 
 
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
A)
1 only
B)
2 only
C)
Both 1 and 2
D)
Neither 1 nor 2

Correct Answer : Option (C) - Both 1 and 2

Note :

The Swadeshi spirit found expression in the establishment of swadeshi textile mills, soap and match factories, tanneries, banks etc. so it contributed to the revival of the indigenous artisan crafts and industries. So, statement 1 is correct. 

On August 15, 1906, the National Council of Education was set-up to organise a system of education.

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Year : 2019
Category : History
5 .
Consider the following pairs:
Movement/Organization   Leader
All India Anti- Untouchability League : Mahatma Gandhi
All India Kisan Sabha  : Swami Sahajanand Saraswati
Self-Respect Movement : E. V. Ramaswami Naicker

Which of the pairs given above is/are correctly matched?
A)
1 only
B)
1 and 2 only
C)
2 and 3 only
D)
1, 2 and 3

Correct Answer : Option (D) - 1, 2 and 3

Note :

Gandhi set up All India Anti-Untouchability League in September 1932. (Spectrum Page 438). The All India Kisan Sabha was founded in  Lucknow in April 1936 With Swami Sahjananda Saraswati as the president. (Spectrum Page 652).
 
Self-Respect Movement emerged in South India under the leadership of E Ramaswamy Naicker, ―Periyar‖ (Plassey to Partition 349).

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Year : 2019
Category : History
A)
Chanhudaro
B)
Kot Diji
C)
Sohgaura
D)
Desalpur

Correct Answer : Option (C) - Sohgaura

Note : Chanhudaro and Desalpur are Harappan sites. Kot Diji is contemporaneous to Harappan era. Sohgura, on the other hand, is famous for Ashokan era inscription.

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Year : 2019
Category : History
A)
Kanganahalli
B)
Sanchi
C)
Shahbazgarhi
D)
Sohgaura

Correct Answer : Option (A) - Kanganahalli

Note :

Kanaganahalli is about 3 km from Sannati, Karnataka. An important excavation site for Buddhist monuments. The most important finding of the excavation include a stone sculptured slab bearing the name Ranyo Ashoko.

The first inscribed portrait of Ashoka (surrounded by female attendants and queens) found at Kanaganahalli.

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Year : 2019
Category : History
8 .
Consider the following :
 
  1. Deification of the Buddha
  2. Treading the path of Bodhisattvas
  3. Image worship and rituals
 
Which of the above is/are the feature/features of Mahayana Buddhism?
A)
1 only
B)
1 and 2 only
C)
2 and 3 only
D)
1, 2 and 3

Correct Answer : Option (D) - 1, 2 and 3

Note : Mahayana Buddhism is one of two main existing branches of Buddhism (the other being Theravada). It started considering Buddha as a god rather than a great teacher and began worshipping Buddha‘s images. It also has a whole cosmology of gods and goddesses as well as various Bodhisattvas seeking complete enlightenment for the benefit of all sentient beings. In fact, the teachings of Mahayana are also nothing but treating the path of various Bodhisattvas.

Source : A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India, Upinder Singh. Chapter 8 – Interactions and Innovations (200BCE- 200CE)

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Year : 2019
Category : History
A)
It was considered a source of income for the State, a sort of tax paid by the people.
B)
It was totally absent in the Madhya Pradesh and Kathiawar regions of the Gupta Empire.
C)
The forced labourer was entitled to weekly wages.
D)
The eldest son of the labourer was sent as the forced labourer.

Correct Answer : Option (A) - It was considered a source of income for the State, a sort of tax paid by the people.

Note :

Vishti was form of forced labour extracted by either state, provincial governor or local chief. It is also mentioned on Gupta era copper inscriptions that enlist variety of taxes. 
 
Junagarh inscription mentions vishti as one form of tax, which indicates that it was extracted from Gujarat and Malwa region. Since it was a forced labour in lieu of tax, it was not a wage labour. Wage labour existed in ancient India but it was not called vishti. Vishti could be extracted from anyone, not in particular from eldest son only.

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Year : 2019
Category : History
A)
Chalukya
B)
Chandela
C)
Rashtrakuta
D)
Vijayanagara

Correct Answer : Option (D) - Vijayanagara

Note : Kalyana Mandapas meant to celebrate divine weddings was a notable feature of the Vijaynagara Kingdom.

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Year : 2019
Category : History