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UPSC 2019 (Prelims & Mains) Questions
1 .
With reference to the management of minor minerals in India, consider the following statements:
 
1. Sand is a 'minor mineral' according to the prevailing law in the country.
 
2. State Governments have the power to grant mining leases of minor minerals, but the powers regarding the formation of rules related to the grant of minor minerals lie with the Central
Government.
 
3. State Governments have the power to frame rules to prevent illegal mining of minor minerals.
 
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
A)
1 and 3 only
B)
2 and 3 only
C)
3 only
D)
1, 2 and 3

Correct Answer : Option (D) - 1, 2 and 3

Note :

Statement 1 : Correct. Sand is a minor mineral, as defined under section 3(e) of the Mines and Minerals (Development and Regulation) Act, 1957 (MMDR Act). 
 
Statement 2 : Correct. Section 15 of the MMDR Act empowers state governments to make rules for regulating the grant of mineral concessions in respect of minor minerals and for purposes connected therewith. The regulation of grant of mineral concessions for minor minerals is, therefore, within the legislative and administrative domain of the state governments. 
 
Statement 3 : Correct. As per Section 15 of the Mines and Minerals (Development and Regulation) (MMDR) Act, 1957, State Governments have been empowered to frame rules in respect of minor minerals for regulating the grant of quarry leases, mining leases or other mineral concessions in respect of minor minerals and for purposes connected therewith. 
 
Both as a consequence of this, and the fact that the States have been granted powers to frame rules regarding illegal mining in terms of Section 23C of MDMR Act, 1957, this is a subject which is entirely under the legislative and administrative jurisdiction of the States

Source : PIB

Year : 2019
Category : General Studies
2 .

Which of the following statements is/are correct regarding the Maternity Benefit (Amendment) Act, 2017?

1. Pregnant women are entitled for three months pre-delivery and three months post-delivery paid leave.

2. Enterprises with creches must allow the mother minimum six creche visits daily.

3. Women with two children get reduced entitlements.

Select the correct answer using the code given below :

A)
1 and 2 only
B)
2 only
C)
3 only
D)
1, 2 and 3

Correct Answer : Option (C) - 3 only

Note :

Statement 1 : Incorrect. It provides for full paid absence from birth for a period of 26 weeks after the amendments. 

Statement 2 : Incorrect. Any establishment which has 50 or more employees shall have the facility of creche. But no such provision of minimum visits. 

Statement 3 : For women who are expecting after having 2 children, the duration of paid maternity leave shall be 12 weeks. So only the third statement is correct.

Year : 2019
Category : General Studies
A)
Australia
B)
Canada
C)
The European Union
D)
The United States of America

Correct Answer : Option (C) - The European Union

Note :

The General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), agreed upon by the European Parliament and Council in April 2016, will replace the Data Protection Directive 95/46/ec in Spring 2018 as the primary law regulating how companies protect EU citizens' personal data.

Companies that are already in compliance with the Directive must ensure that they are also compliant with the new requirements of the GDPR before it becomes effective on May 25, 2018. Companies that fail to achieve GDPR compliance before the deadline will be subject to stiff penalties and fines.

Year : 2019
Category : General Studies
A)
The proportion of literates in the population
B)
The stock of its buildings, other infrastructure and machines
C)
The size of population in the working age group
D)
The level of mutual trust and harmony in the society

Correct Answer : Option (D) - The level of mutual trust and harmony in the society

Note :

It the network of relationship among people who live and work in a particular society enabling that society to function effectively. It broadly refers to those factors of effectively functioning social groups that include such things as interpersonal relationships, a shared sense of identity, a shared understanding, shared norms, shared values, trust, cooperation, and reciprocity.

Year : 2019
Category : General Studies
5 .

Consider the following statements:

  1. As per law, the Compensatory Afforestation Fund Management and Planning Authority exists at both National and State levels.

  2. People's participation is mandatory in the compensatory afforestation programmes carried out under the Compensatory Afforestation Fund Act, 2016.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

A)
1 Only
B)
2 Only
C)
Both 1 and 2
D)
Neither 1 nor 2

Correct Answer : Option (A) - 1 Only

Note : The first statement is correct. Because the Compensatory Afforestation Fund Management and Planning Act talks about the two levels of the authority at both the national and State levels. But the second statement is not true. In fact, this a criticism of the act that people‘s participation is missing from the process.

Year : 2019
Category : General Studies
6 .

Consider the following statements:

  1. As per recent amendment to the Indian Forest Act, 1927, forest dwellers have the right to fell the bamboos grown on forest areas.

  2. As per the Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act, 2006, bamboo is a minor forest produce.

  3. The Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act, 2006 allows ownership of minor forest produce to forest dwellers

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

A)
1 and 2 only
B)
2 and 3 only
C)
3 only
D)
1, 2 and 3

Correct Answer : Option (B) - 2 and 3 only

Note :

To address the adverse living conditions of many tribal families living in forests was on account of non-recognition and vesting of pre-existing rights, a landmark legislation viz. Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act, 2006, has been enacted to recognize and vest the forest rights. This Act not only recognizes the rights to hold and live in the forest land under the individual or common occupation for habitation or for self-cultivation for livelihood, but also grants several other rights to ensure their control over forest resources which, inter-alia, include right of ownership, access to collect, use and dispose of minor forest produce, community rights such as nistar. 
 
The Act recognises bamboo as an MFP and vests the ―right of ownership, access to collect, use and dispose of minor forest produce‖ with Scheduled Tribes and traditional forest dwellers.
 
The Union Government, in a landmark initiative, has promulgated the Indian Forest (Amendment) Ordinance, 2017 to exempt bamboo grown in non-forest areas from definition of tree, thereby dispensing with the requirement of felling/transit permit for its economic use. Hence, now right to fell the bamboos is granted.

Year : 2019
Category : General Studies
7 .
Consider the following statements :
As per the Industrial Employment (Standing Orders) Central (Amendment) Rules, 2018: 

  1. if rules for fixed-term employment are implemented, it becomes easier for the firms/ companies to lay off workers 
  2. no notice of termination of employment shall be necessary in the case of temporary workman 

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
 
A)
1 only
B)
2 only
C)
Both 1 and 2
D)
Neither 1 nor 2

Correct Answer : Option (C) - Both 1 and 2

Note :

Industrial Employment (Standing Orders) Central (Amendment) Rules, 2018 notifies fixed term employment for all sectors through an amendment to the stated Act. Fixed-term employment for all sectors will make it easier for companies to hire-and-fire workers along with reducing the role of middlemen. 

As per the Industrial Employment (Standing Orders) Central (Amendment) Rules, 2018, a ―fixed term employment workman is a workman who has been engaged on the basis of a written contract of employment for a fixed period. 

It also brought changes like no workman employed on fixed term employment basis as a result of non-renewal of contract or employment or on its expiry shall be entitled to any notice or pay in lieu thereof, if his services are terminated. No notice of termination of employment shall be necessary in the case of temporary workman whether monthly rated, weekly rated or piece rated and probationers or badli workmen.

Year : 2019
Category : General Studies
8 .
Consider the following statements: 
The Environment Protection Act, 1986 empowers the Government of India to 

  1. state the requirement of public participation in the process of environmental protection, and the procedure and manner in which it is sought 
  2. lay down the standards for emission or discharge of environmental pollutants from various sources 

Which of the statements given above is/ are correct?
A)
1 only
B)
2 only
C)
Both 1 and 2
D)
Neither 1 nor 2

Correct Answer : Option (C) - Both 1 and 2

Note : In the Environment Protection Act, 1986 governments enable the public to participate in decision-making, they help meet society‘s goal of sustainable and environmentally sound development. Public participation in environmental decision-making and, in particular, in EIA, lead to some benefits in these processes.

As a result of public participation, the process of decision-making, up to and including the final decision, becomes more transparent and legitimate. This act empowers the Union Govt to take all appropriate measures to prevent and control pollutions and to establish the effective machinery for the purpose of protecting and improving the quality of the environment. It also lays down the standards for emission or discharge of environmental pollutants from various sources. Hence, both statements are correct.

Year : 2019
Category : General Studies
A)
Waste generator has to segregate waste into five categories.
B)
The Rules are applicable to notified urban local bodies, notified towns and all industrial townships only.
C)
The Rules provide for exact and elaborate criteria for the identification of sites for landfills and waste processing facilities.
D)
It is mandatory on the part of waste generator that the waste generated in one district cannot be moved to another district.

Correct Answer : Option (C) - The Rules provide for exact and elaborate criteria for the identification of sites for landfills and waste processing facilities.

Note : The new rules are now applicable beyond municipal areas and have included urban agglomerations, census towns, notified industrial townships, areas under the control of Indian Railways, airports, special economic zones, places of pilgrimage, religious and historical importance, and State and Central Government organisations in their ambit.

Waste generators would now have to now segregate waste into three streams Biodegradables, Dry (Plastic, Paper, metal, Wood, etc.) and Domestic Hazardous waste (diapers, napkins, mosquito repellants, cleaning agents etc.) before handing it over to the collector.

For census towns with a population below 1 million or for all local bodies having a population of 0.5 million or more, common, or stand-alone sanitary landfills will have to be set up in three years time. Also, common, or regional sanitary landfills to be set up by all local bodies and census towns with a population under 0.5 million will have to be completed in three years

Year : 2019
Category : General Studies
A)
Department of Science and Technology
B)
Ministry of Labour and Employment
C)
NITI Aayog
D)
Ministry of Labour and Employment

Correct Answer : Option (C) - NITI Aayog

Note : The Atal Innovation Mission(AIM) is a flagship initiative of NITI Aayog.

Atal Innovation Mission (AIM) including Self-Employment and Talent Utilization (SETU) is Government of India‘s endeavour to promote a culture of innovation and entrepreneurship. Its objective is to serve as a platform for promotion of world-class Innovation Hubs, Grand Challenges, Start-up businesses and other self-employment activities, particularly in technology driven areas.

Year : 2019
Category : General Studies