UPSC QUESTIONS
UPSC 2020 (Prelims & Mains) Questions
1 .
Consider the following statements :

  1. Aadhaar metadata cannot be stored for more than three months.
  2. State cannot enter into any contract with private corporations for sharing of Aadhaar data.
  3. Aadhaar is mandatory for obtaining insurance products.
  4. Aadhaar is mandatory for getting benefits funded out of the Consolidated Fund of India.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
A)
1 and 4 only
B)
2 and 4 only
C)
3 only
D)
1, 2 and3 only

Correct Answer : Option (B) - 2 and 4 only

Note :

Supreme Court had ruled that Aadhaar metadata can not be stored for more than six months. This nullified the provision in the Act, which allowed storage of such data for five years. Therefore, statement 1 is not correct.

The Supreme court in the Aadhaar verdict had defined the welfare schemes as those funded from the consolidated fund of India. And it upheld the validity of Section 7 of the Aadhaar Act which states that Central or State Governments can make possession of an Aadhaar number or Aadhaar authentication mandatory for receipt of subsidies, benefits or services funded out of the Consolidated Fund of India. Therefore, statement 4 is correct.

The same 2018 judgement also held making that Aadhaar mandatory for other services apart from welfare schemes as unconstitutional. This includes availing financial services, including insurance or even to prevent money laundering in such services. Subsequently, IRDAI issued an advisory in January 2019 that clarified that aadhaar is not mandatory for obtaining insurance and withdrew its earlier policy of 2017 to make Aadhaar mandatory in insurance for preventing money laundering. Therefore, statement 3 is not correct.

Further, many sections of the Aadhaar Act were struck down. This includes the part of section 57 which allowed providing private corporations to verify Aadhaar data which was held unconstitutional. Therefore, statement 2 is correct.

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Year : 2020
Category : General Studies
A)
the matter of creating new All India Services
B)
amending the Constitution
C)
the removal of the government
D)
making cut motions

Correct Answer : Option (B) - amending the Constitution

Note :

Rajya Sabha has equal powers with Lok Sabha in the amendment of the constitutional bill. Unlike money bill, the constitutional amendment bill has to be approved by both the houses of Parliament with special majority. There is no provision of Joint Session in case of disagreement, so, Lok Sabha cannot override the decision of Rajya Sabha.

However, in the matters of formation and removal of government, the Rajya Sabha has unequal status with respect to Lok Sabha. Similarly, Rajya Sabha has less powers in the matters of finance like making cut motions, passing money bill, etc. vis-a-vis Lok Sabha.

The Rajya Sabha has been given some special powers which it enjoys exclusively. This includes power to authorise the Parliament to create new All-India Services common to both the Centre and states (Article 312) by passing a resolution.

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Year : 2020
Category : General Studies
3 .
With reference to the funds under Members of Parliament Local Area Development Scheme (MPLADS), which of the following statements are correct?

  1. MPLADS funds must be used to create durable assets like physical infrastructure for health, education, etc.
  2. A specified portion of each MP’s ‘fund must benefit SC/ST populations.
  3. MPLADS funds are sanctioned on yearly basis and the unused funds cannot be carried forward to the next year.
  4. The district authority must inspect at least 10% of all works under implementation every year.

Select the correct answer using the code given below :
A)
1 and 2 only
B)
3 and 4 only
C)
1, 2 and 3 only
D)
1, 2 and 4 only

Correct Answer : Option (D) - 1, 2 and 4 only

Note :

Following are the features of MPLAD scheme :

All works to meet locally felt infrastructure and development needs, with an emphasis on creation of durable assets in the constituency are permissible under MPLADS except those prohibited in Annexure-II of the guidelines of MPLAD. Therefore statement 1 is correct.

Development of Areas inhabited by Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribe: M.Ps are to recommend every year, works costing at least 15 per cent of the MPLADS entitlement for the year for areas inhabited by Scheduled Caste population and 7.5 per cent for areas inhabited by S.T. population. In other words, out of an amount of Rs.5 crores, a M.P. shall recommend for areas inhabited by S.C. population, Rs.75 lacs and Rs.37.5 lacs for areas inhabited by S.T. population. In case there is insufficient tribal population in the area of Lok Sabha Member, they may recommend this amount for the creation of community assets in tribal areas outside of their constituency but within their State of election. In case a State does not have S.T. inhabited areas, this amount may be utilized in S.C. Therefore, statement 2 is correct

MPLADS Funds are Non-lapsable: Funds released to the District Authority by the Government of India are non-lapsable. Funds left in the district can be carried forward for utilization in the subsequent years. Therefore, statement 3 is not correct.

Role of the District Authority: The District Authority’s role has been outlined in different paragraphs of the MPLAD Guidelines. The District Authority would be responsible for overall coordination and supervision of the works under the scheme at the district level and inspect at least 10% of the works under implementation every year. Therefore, statement 4 is correct.

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Year : 2020
Category : General Studies
A)
Right against Exploitation
B)
Right to Freedom
C)
Right to Constitutional Remedies
D)
Right to Equality

Correct Answer : Option (D) - Right to Equality

Note : Untouchability as a form of discrimination goes against the notion of equality amongst citizens irrespective of caste. Therefore, it has been incorporated under Article 17 as one of the five rights under the spectrum of right to equality (Articles 14-18)

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Year : 2020
Category : General Studies
A)
the Preamble of the Constitution
B)
a Directive Principle of State Policy
C)
the Seventh Schedule
D)
the conventional practice

Correct Answer : Option (B) - a Directive Principle of State Policy

Note : Article 50 of the Indian Constitution recommends state to take efforts to separate the judiciary from the executive in the public services of the State. The Criminal Procedure Code (1973) has affected the separation of Judiciary from the Executive in pursuance of Article 50 under the Directive Principles of State Policy.

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Year : 2020
Category : General Studies
A)
Long standing parliamentary convention
B)
Article 112 and Article 110(1) of the Constitution of India
C)
Article 113 of the Constitution of India
D)
Provisions of the Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management Act, 2003

Correct Answer : Option (B) - Article 112 and Article 110(1) of the Constitution of India

Note :

Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management (FRBM) became an Act in 2003. The objective of the Act is to ensure inter-generational equity in fiscal management, long run macroeconomic stability, better coordination between fiscal and monetary policy, and transparency in fiscal operation of the Government. FRBM Act provides a legal institutional framework for fiscal consolidation. The Act also requires the government to lay before the parliament three policy statements in each financial year namely

a. Medium Term Fiscal Policy Statement;
b. Fiscal Policy Strategy Statement and
c. Macroeconomic Framework Policy Statement.

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Year : 2020
Category : General Studies
A)
government by legislature
B)
popular government
C)
multi-party government
D)
limited government

Correct Answer : Option (D) - limited government

Note : Constitutional government is defined by the existence of a constitution—which may be a legal instrument or merely a set of fixed norms or principles generally accepted as the fundamental Law of the polity—that effectively controls the exercise of political power. The essence of constitutionalism is the control of power by its distribution among several state organs or offices in such a way that they are each subjected to reciprocal controls and forced to cooperate in formulating the will of the state. Constitutional government in essence is about constitutionalism which is about limited government. In many cases, constitutional government is used interchangeably with “constitutionally limited government” or “limited government”.

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Year : 2020
Category : General Studies
8 .
Other than the Fundamental Rights, which of the following parts of the Constitution of India reflect/reflects the principles and provisions of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948)?

  1. Preamble
  2. Directive Principles of State Policy
  3. Fundamental Duties

Select the correct answer using the code given below :
A)
1 and 2 only
B)
2 only
C)
1 and 3 only
D)
1, 2 and 3

Correct Answer : Option (D) - 1, 2 and 3

Note :

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948 consists of the following: The preamble sets out the historical and social causes that led to the necessity of drafting the Declaration.

* Articles 1–2 established the basic concepts of dignity, liberty, and equality.

* Articles 3–5 established other individual rights, such as the right to life and the prohibition of slavery and torture.

* Articles 6–11 refer to the fundamental legality of human rights with specific remedies cited for their defence when violated.

* Articles 12–17 established the rights of the individual towards the community, including freedom of movement.

* Articles 18–21 sanctioned the so-called "constitutional liberties" and spiritual, public, and political freedoms, such as freedom of thought, opinion, religion and conscience, word, and peaceful association of the individual.

* Articles 22–27 sanctioned an individual's economic, social and cultural rights, including healthcare. It upholds an expansive right to a standard of living, provides for additional accommodations in case of physical debilitation or disability, and makes special mention of care given to those in motherhood or childhood.

* Articles 28–30 established the general means of exercising these rights, the areas in which the rights of the individual cannot be applied, the duty of the individual to society, and the prohibition of the use of rights in contravention of the purposes of the United Nations Organization.

The Preamble of the constitution mentions about liberty, equality, fraternity, justice - social, economic, political and many such things which overlap with the 1948 declaration as seen in Articles 1-2, 18-21, etc. Similarly, the 1948 declaration thus talks of not just political rights but also of social and economic rights especially under Articles 22-27. In case of Indian constitution, these socio-economic rights are provided in the Directive Principles of state policy. Lastly, the declaration talks of not just rights but also duties of individual towards the society as seen in the Articles 28-30. Therefore, all the three parts reflect the spirit of the declaration.

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Year : 2020
Category : General Studies
9 .
In India, Legal Services Authorities provide free legal services to which of the following type of citizens?

  1. Person with an annual income of less than Rs 1,00,000
  2. Transgender with an annual income of less than Rs 2,00,000
  3. Member of Other Backward Classes (OBC) with an annual income of less than ₹ 3,00,000
  4. All Senior Citizens

Select the correct answer using the code given below:
A)
1 and 2 only
B)
3 and 4 only
C)
2 and 3 only
D)
1 and 4 only

Correct Answer : Option (A) - 1 and 2 only

Note :

The persons eligible for getting free legal services include:
* Women and children
* Members of SC/ST
* Industrial workmen
* Victims of mass disaster, violence, flood, drought, earthquake industrial disaster
* Disabled persons
* Persons in custody
* Persons whose annual income does not exceed ₹1 lakh
* Victims of trafficking in human beings or begar.
Therefore statement 1 is correct.

Senior citizens’ eligibility for free legal aid depends on the Rules framed by the respective State Governments in this regard. In Delhi for example, senior citizens are eligible for free legal aid subject to prescribed ceiling of annual income. Therefore, all senior citizens are not eligible for free aid. Therefore, statement 4 is not correct.

There is free aid to members of SC and ST community but not for OBCs. Hence statement 3 is not correct.

There is provision for free legal aid to transgenders upto 2 lakhs in Delhi. (But it is yet to be implemented at an all India level)

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Year : 2020
Category : General Studies
10 .
Consider the following pairs :
International agreement /set-up   Subject
Alma-Ata Declaration : Healthcare of the people
Hague Convention : Biological and chemical weapons
Talanoa Dialogue : Global climate change
Under2 Coalition : Child rights

Which of the pairs given above is/are correctly matched ?
A)
1 and 2 only
B)
4 only
C)
1 and 3 only
D)
2, 3 and 4 only

Correct Answer : Option (C) - 1 and 3 only

Note :

The Alma Ata declaration on “Health for All” in 1978 set out a broad set of principles called the Primary Health Care (PHC) approach. It focussed on multi-dimensional, inter-sectoral healthcare, which was to be made available “closest to home”. It required technology to be simple and low cost, while being effective and safe. Primary care, with secondary and tertiary levels also adopting PHC principles, was envisioned as the hub of this system. Hence pair 1 is matched correctly.
 
In 2016, the then Women and Child Development Minister Maneka Gandhi had said that India will not ratify the the Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction in the interest of women fleeing bad marriage and had set up the panel headed by Punjab and Haryana High Court judge Rajesh Bindal for detailed report and the panel in its 2018 report has not recommended signing the treaty. Hence, pair 2 is not correct.
 
The Talanoa Dialogue of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, beginning January 2018, will facilitate the parties to take stock of progress post-Paris. Hence pair 3 is correct.
 
The Under2 Coalition, a Memorandum of Understanding by subnational governments to reduce their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions towards net-zero by 2050, is generating a unique precedent for bold climate leadership, with its member states and regions surpassing 200 in number. Currently, Telangana and Chhattisgarh are signatories to this pact from India, as compared to representations from the other top emitters: 26 subnational governments in China and 24 in the U.S. Hence, pair 4 is not correct.

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Year : 2020
Category : General Studies

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