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5G Network Interview Questions
5G Network is the fifth generation of wireless technology, providing higher speed, lower latency and greater capacity than 4G LTE networks. It can make a significant impact on how we live, work and play.

5G wireless technology is meant to deliver higher multi-Gbps peak data speeds, ultra low latency, more reliability, massive network capacity, increased availability, and a more uniform user experience to more users. Higher performance and improved efficiency empower new user experiences and connects new industries.

Speed : 5G can provide high speed (up to 10x faster than median speeds of 4G LTE)

Highlighting key features and use-cases : mobile broadband, massive IoT, and mission-critical services.
No one company or person owns 5G, but there are several companies within the mobile ecosystem that are contributing to bringing 5G to life. Qualcomm has played a major role in inventing the many foundational technologies that drive the industry forward and make up 5G, the next wireless standard.
We are at the heart of the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP), the industry organization that defines the global specifications for 3G UMTS (including HSPA), 4G LTE, and 5G technologies.
3GPP is driving many essential inventions across all aspects of 5G design, from the air interface to the service layer. Other 3GPP 5G members range from infrastructure vendors and component/device manufacturers to mobile network operators and vertical service providers.
Wireless networks are composed of cell sites divided into sectors that send data through radio waves. Fourth-generation (4G) Long-Term Evolution (LTE) wireless technology provides the foundation for 5G. Unlike 4G, which requires large, high-power cell towers to radiate signals over longer distances, 5G wireless signals are transmitted through large numbers of small cell stations located in places like light poles or building roofs. The use of multiple small cells is necessary because the millimeter wave (mmWave) spectrum-- the band of spectrum between 30 and 300 gigahertz (Ghz) that 5G relies on to generate high speeds -- can only travel over short distances and is subject to interference from weather and physical obstacles, like buildings or trees.
Previous generations of wireless technology have used lower-frequency bands of spectrum. To offset the challenges relating to distance and interference with mmWave, the wireless industry is also considering the use of a lower-frequency spectrum for 5G networks so network operators could use spectrum they already own to build out their new networks. Lower-frequency spectrum reaches greater distances but has lower speed and capacity than mmWave.

The lower frequency wireless spectrum is made up of low- and midband frequencies. Low-band frequencies operate at around 600 to 700 megahertz (MHz), while midband frequencies operate at around 2.5 to 3.5 GHz. This is compared to high-band mmWave signals, which operate at approximately 24 to 39 GHz.
MmWave signals can be easily blocked by objects such as trees, walls and buildings -- meaning that, much of the time, mmWave can only cover about a city block within direct line of sight of a cell site or node. Different approaches have been tackled regarding how to get around this issue. A brute-force approach involves using multiple nodes around each block of a populated area so that a 5G-enabled device can use an Air interface -- switching from node to node while maintaining MM wave speeds.
5G is based on OFDM (Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing), a method of modulating a digital signal across several different channels to reduce interference. 5G uses 5G NR air interface alongside OFDM principles. 5G also uses wider bandwidth technologies such as sub-6 GHz and mmWave.
Like 4G LTE, 5G OFDM operates based on the same mobile networking principles. However, the new 5G New Radio(NR) air interface can further enhance OFDM to deliver a much higher degree of flexibility and scalability. This could provide more 5G access to more people and things for a variety of different use cases.
5G will bring wider bandwidths by expanding the usage of spectrum resources, from sub-3 GHz used in 4G to 100 GHz and beyond. 5G can operate in both lower bands (e.g., sub-6 GHz) as well as mmWave (e.g., 24 GHz and up), which will bring extreme capacity, multi-Gbps throughput, and low latency.
The previous generations of mobile networks are 1G, 2G, 3G, and 4G.
First generation - 1G : 1980s: 1G delivered analog voice.
Second generation - 2G : Early 1990s: 2G introduced digital voice (e.g. CDMA- Code Division Multiple Access).
Third generation - 3G : Early 2000s: 3G brought mobile data (e.g. CDMA2000).
Fourth generation - 4G LTE : 2010s: 4G LTE ushered in the era of mobile broadband.
1G, 2G, 3G, and 4G all led to 5G, which is designed to provide more connectivity than was ever available before.
5G is a unified, more capable air interface. It has been designed with an extended capacity to enable next-generation user experiences, empower new deployment models and deliver new services.

5g different side
With high speeds, superior reliability and negligible latency, 5G will expand the mobile ecosystem into new realms. 5G will impact every industry, making safer transportation, remote healthcare, precision agriculture, digitized logistics — and more — a reality.
5G Master Information Block (MIB) includes system information transmitted on xBCH transport channel and xBCCH logical channel. The IE (Information Element) XSystemInformationBlock contains RRC (radio resource configuration) information which is common for all UEs. It is transmitted on xBCCH logical channel and xBCH transport channel.
There are several reasons that 5G will be better than 4G :
• 5G is significantly faster than 4G
• 5G has more capacity than 4G
• 5G has significantly lower latency than 4G
• 5G is a unified platform that is more capable than 4G
• 5G uses spectrum better than 4G
5G is a unified platform that is more capable than 4G : While 4G LTE focused on delivering much faster mobile broadband services than 3G, 5G is designed to be a unified, more capable platform that not only elevates mobile broadband experiences, but also supports new services such as mission-critical communications and the massive IoT. 5G can also natively support all spectrum types (licensed, shared, unlicensed) and bands (low, mid, high), a wide range of deployment models (from traditional macro-cells to hotspots), and new ways to interconnect (such as device-to-device and multi-hop mesh).
5G uses spectrum better than 4G : 5G is also designed to get the most out of every bit of spectrum across a wide array of available spectrum regulatory paradigms and bands—from low bands below 1 GHz, to mid bands from 1 GHz to 6 GHz, to high bands known as millimeter wave (mmWave).
5G is faster than 4G : 5G can be significantly faster than 4G, delivering up to 20 Gigabits-per-second (Gbps) peak data rates and 100+ Megabits-per-second (Mbps) average data rates.
5G has more capacity than 4G : 5G is designed to support a 100x increase in traffic capacity and network efficiency.1
5G has lower latency than 4G : 5G has significantly lower latency to deliver more instantaneous, real-time access: a 10x decrease in end-to-end latency down to 1ms.1
5G is driving global growth :

*  $13.1 Trillion dollars of global economic output
*  $22.8 Million new jobs created
*  $265B global 5G CAPEX and R&D annually over the next 15 years

Through a landmark 5G Economy study, we found that 5G’s full economic effect will likely be realized across the globe by 2035—supporting a wide range of industries and potentially enabling up to $13.1 trillion worth of goods and services.

This impact is much greater than previous network generations. The development requirements of the new 5G network are also expanding beyond the traditional mobile networking players to industries such as the automotive industry.

The study also revealed that the 5G value chain (including OEMs, operators, content creators, app developers, and consumers) could alone support up to 22.8 million jobs, or more than one job for every person in Beijing, China. And there are many emerging and new applications that will still be defined in the future. Only time will tell what the full “5G effect” on the economy is going to be.
5G is designed to do a variety of things that can transform our lives, including giving us faster download speeds, low latency, and more capacity and connectivity for billions of devices—especially in the areas of virtual reality (VR), the IoT, and artificial intelligence (AI).
For example, with 5G, you can access new and improved experiences including near-instant access to cloud services, multiplayer cloud gaming, shopping with augmented reality, and real-time video translation and collaboration, and more.
C-Band is a mid-band wireless spectrum that is now part of Verizon’s 5G Ultra Wideband network. C-band spectrum provides a valuable middle ground between capacity and coverage for 5G networks, and takes advantage of 5G speed while expanding mobility, home broadband and business internet solutions to millions of customers.
Most likely, the two technologies will coexist for a period of time as network rollouts progress. Right now, 5G can be used as an alternative to Wi-Fi depending on location and coverage.
It’s also beneficial in public areas, where 5G can be safer than Wi-Fi.
Broadly speaking, 5G is used across three main types of connected services, including enhanced mobile broadband, mission-critical communications, and the massive IoT. A defining capability of 5G is that it is designed for forward compatibility—the ability to flexibly support future services that are unknown today.

Enhanced mobile broadband : In addition to making our smartphones better, 5G mobile technology can usher in new immersive experiences such as VR and AR with faster, more uniform data rates, lower latency, and lower cost-per-bit.

Mission-critical communications : 5G can enable new services that can transform industries with ultra-reliable, available, low-latency links like remote control of critical infrastructure, vehicles, and medical procedures.

Massive IoT : 5G is meant to seamlessly connect a massive number of embedded sensors in virtually everything through the ability to scale down in data rates, power, and mobility—providing extremely lean and low-cost connectivity solutions.
The average consumer is expected use close to 11 GB of data per month on their smartphone in 2022 This is driven by explosive growth in video traffic as mobile is increasingly becoming the source of media and entertainment, as well as the massive growth in always-connected cloud computing and experiences.
4G completely changed how we consume information. In the past decade we have witnessed leaps and bounds in the mobile app industry around services such as video streaming, ride sharing, food delivery and more.
5G will expand the mobile ecosystem to new industries. This will contribute to cutting-edge user experiences such as boundless extreme reality (XR), seamless IoT capabilities, new enterprise applications, local interactive content and instant cloud access, to name a few.
With high data speeds and superior network reliability, 5G will have a tremendous impact on businesses. The benefits of 5G will enhance the efficiency of businesses while also giving users faster access to more information.
Depending on the industry, some businesses can make full use of 5G capabilities, especially those needing the high speed, low latency, and network capacity that 5G is designed to provide. For example, smart factories could use 5G to run industrial Ethernet to help them increase operational productivity and precision.
5G is designed to deliver peak data rates up to 20 Gbps based on IMT-2020 requirements. Qualcomm Technologies’ flagship 5G solutions, the Qualcomm® Snapdragon™ X65 is designed to achieve up to 10 Gbps in downlink peak data rates.

But 5G is about more than just how fast it is. In addition to higher peak data rates, 5G is designed to provide much more network capacity by expanding into new spectrum, such as mmWave.

5G can also deliver much lower latency for a more immediate response and can provide an overall more uniform user experience so that the data rates stay consistently high—even when users are moving around. And the new 5G NR mobile network is backed up by a Gigabit LTE coverage foundation, which can provide ubiquitous Gigabit-class connectivity.
5G can change home internet service by providing a wireless modem alternative to existing wires. Internet Service Providers (ISPs) can now serve customers using 5G infrastructure – making the coverage, performance and deployment flexibility of 5G a compelling backhaul alternative to fiber, DSL or cabled solutions.
Even though the downsides of 5G are clear when considering how easily mmWave can be blocked, or less clear considering Radio Frequency (RF) exposure limits, 5G still has plenty of worthy benefits, such as the following :
* use of higher frequencies;
* high bandwidth;
* enhanced mobile broadband;
* a lower latency of 5 ms;

higher data rates, which will enable new technology options over 5G networks, such as 4K streaming or near-real-time streaming of virtual reality (VR); and
the potential to have a 5G mobile network made up of low-band, midband and mmWave frequencies.
Latency in the case of 5G refers to over-the-air latency, between the user device and the radio access network radio. To reduce overall latency, service providers will need to put data much closer to end-users, which is why some MNOs are considering leasing space at their cell sites to host data and applications for content providers, particularly in large urban centers. Ultimately, the placement of data and processing will be determined by the supported 5G application. The Mobile Edge Computing (MEC) initiative will play a major role in addressing this important challenge.
Network operators are developing two types of 5G services :

* 5G fixed wireless broadband services
* 5G cellular services
5G fixed wireless broadband services deliver internet access to homes and businesses without a wired connection to the premises. To do that, network operators deploy NRs in small cell sites near buildings to beam a signal to a receiver on a rooftop or a windowsill that is amplified within the premises. Fixed broadband services are expected to make it less expensive for operators to deliver broadband services to homes and businesses because this approach eliminates the need to roll out fiber optic lines to every residence. Instead, operators need only install fiber optics to cell sites, and customers receive broadband services through wireless modems located in their residences or businesses.

5G cellular services  provide user access to operators' 5G cellular networks. These services began to be rolled out in 2019 when the first 5G-enabled (or -compliant) devices became commercially available. Cellular service delivery is also dependent upon the completion of mobile core standards by 3GPP.
Each generation of cellular technology differs in its data transmission speed and encoding methods, which require end users to upgrade their hardware. 4G can support up to 2 Gbps and is slowly continuing to improve in speeds. 4G featured speeds up to 500 times faster than 3G. 5G can be up to 100 times faster than 4G.
One of the main differences between 4G and 5G is the level of latency, of which 5G will have much less. 5G will use Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiplexing (OFDM) encoding, similar to 4G LTE. 4G, however, will use 20 MHz channels, bonded together at 160 MHz. 5G will be up to between 100 and 800 MHz channels, which requires larger blocks of airwaves than 4G.
Samsung is currently researching 6G. Not too much is currently known on how fast 6G would be and how it would operate; however, 6G will probably operate in similar differences in magnitude as between 4G and 5G. Some think 6G may use mmWave on the radio spectrum and may be a decade away.
Following are the functions performed by RRC layer in 5G NR protocol stack.

* Broadcast SI (System Information) messages to AS (Access Stratum) and NAS (Non-Access Stratum).
* Handles paging initiated by 5GC (5G Core Network) or NG-RAN (Radio Access Network).
* Establishment, maintenance and release of RRC Connection between 5G NR UE and NG-RAN. This includes addition, modification and release of CA(carrier aggregation) and Dual connectivity in NR or between E-UTRA and NR.
* Security related functions including key management
* Establishment, configuration, maintenance and release of SRBs (Signaling Radio Bearers) and DRBs (Data Radio Bearers).
* Mobility functions such as handover, context transfer, UE cell selection/re-selection, control of cell selection/re-selection, Inter-RAT mobility etc.
* QoS management
* UE measurement reporting, control of reporting
* Detection of radio link failure and recovery from radio link failure
* NAS message transfer to/from NAS from/to UE
Not physically. If, for example, a service provider has a 4G cell and wants to add 5G radios to that macro towers, they would likely end up sharing the aggregation and core network back to the data center, perhaps over different wavelengths or different parts of the network, L2/L3 VPNs, or Optical VPNs. Rolling out completely separate networks for both it would become cost prohibitive quickly and much harder to get to ROI. Some parts of the network will be only for 5G, and some shared.
It depends on what you classify as a “thing”. If it includes HD surveillance camera, for example, that runs on a cellular network, then yes, and lots of it. Smaller things, such as temperature sensors, will generate far less traffic, but there may be billions of them deployed, so it adds up quickly. For the most part, the challenge of Internet Of Things (IoT) will likely be about the number of individual services, not capacity.
IPv6 will have a big place in 5G, primarily because of the Internet of Things (IoT), which will add tens of billions of new devices to this mobile network as it’s roll out. IPv4 cannot cope with the number of unique IP addresses that will be required, but IPv6 can.

IPv6 also introduces the Neighbor Discovery Protocol (NDP) that enables multiprotocol interoperability between IoT devices. So, both the number of addressable addresses in IPv6 and the features of the protocol will be critical to the success of 5G.
Many of the big carriers are working on building up their 5G networks now. This includes Verizon, AT&T and Sprint. Verizon is working on implementing mmWave, and T-Mobile is working on low- and midband 5G first.
Led by T-Mobile, carriers are starting to embrace the idea of a multi-tier 5G strategy, which includes the use of low-band, midband and mmWave frequencies. T-Mobile has started to launch 5G in half a dozen markets currently.
Verizon is another leader in the 5G market and is currently focusing on the implementation of mmWave 5G. In addition, Verizon created an investment fund named Verizon Ventures. Verizon Ventures aims to invest in areas that would benefit from 5G, such as augmented reality, IoT and artificial intelligence.
Sprint is also offering midband 5G using 2.5 GHz frequencies. AT&T has started investing in 5G but is currently lagging behind the competition a bit. The company has also rolled out 5G Evolution (5GE), which is not actually 5G.
AT&T has released a 5GE network, and in an update, 4G LTE users have gotten an "upgrade" to 5GE. However, 5GE is just a rebranding of AT&T's Gb 4G LTE network. AT&T argues that the speeds are close enough to 5G, but it is technically not 5G. The G stands for generation, typically signaling a compatibility break with former hardware. 5GE does not follow this trend and is technically not 5G. This marketing strategy may mislead individuals who do not know 5GE is not actually 5G.
Private 5G networks are nonpublic mobile networks that can use licensed, unlicensed, or shared spectrum. Private 5G networks are meant to augment existing capabilities and introduce new possibilities that other systems are not able to support.
There are multiple models for how a private 5G network can be architected, deployed, and operated, including:
* Wholly owned and operated private 5G networks, where an organization owns all the equipment, private clouds, and spectrum, and manages the network in-house

* Hybrid private-public cloud 5G networks, where a business may own or lease on-premises equipment and use a public or private cloud service to host parts of the network

* Private 5G delivered via network slicing, which may include an on-site Radio Access Network (RAN) and other equipment, depending on application needs

* Neutral host networks with a RAN and signal sharing
While both private 5G and Wi-Fi can work together and make network services such as internet access available wirelessly, they have some key differences.
It's important to note that 5G isn't intended to replace Wi-Fi. Each technology has unique advantages depending on settings and use cases.
Wi-Fi is a familiar standard, and one that millions of endpoints in organizations worldwide can use daily. Wi-Fi infrastructure is relatively inexpensive to install and manage. However, Wi-Fi has limitations in its usefulness as a standalone solution for connectivity:
Security : Threats such as malware may only need to steal or spoof credentials to gain access to networks. Private 5G communications are encrypted, and an appropriate SIM card must be present in the endpoint device to enable access.
Coverage : Wi-Fi deployments can be complex and cost-prohibitive in large usage areas such as airports or event venues, given the high number of endpoints needed. In remote areas where comprehensive Wi-Fi infrastructure does not exist, 5G and 4G can offer greater coverage without wiring.
Performance :
Both Wi-Fi and 5G operate on shared spectrums. Wi-Fi can experience performance challenges in terms of how it shares bandwidth across connected devices; in addition, Wi-Fi is more prone to interference and usage-based fluctuations. The number of access point handoffs can cause lags and dropouts.
In theory, Wi-Fi is capable of 5G's performance. In reality, Wi-Fi isn't able to offer the same reliability and performance guarantees that 5G can provide, such as low latency, faster speed, and greater bandwidth.
The best way to compare private 5G and Wi-Fi is to see how they will both have a role to play in supporting enterprises and organizations in the future. Most of today's computing devices work very well on Wi-Fi connections, although the same devices—if equipped for 5G—can often operate many times faster via 5G connection.
Private 5G network ranges can cover anywhere from a few thousand square feet to dozens of square kilometers, depending on the power of the radio transmitter, the band being used, and the needs of the user.
A typical 5G radio operating on low, mid, and high bands offers the following ranges :
Low-band :
* Less than 1 GHz
* Hundreds of square miles
* Speeds of less than 300 Mbps
Mid-band : 
* Sub-6 GHz
* Several-mile radius
* Can reach low Multigigabit speeds
High-band or mmWave : 
* Less than 1-mile radius today
* Mid to high Multigigabit speeds
A total of ten bands and over 72,000 MHz of the spectrum are up for grabs in the ongoing auction. The bands on auction are —  600 MHz, 700 MHz, 800 MHz, 900 MHz, 1800 MHz, 2100 MHz, 2300 MHz, 2500 MHz, 3.3 GHz, and 26 GHz. It’s safe to say that most consumers in India will only experience sub-6GHz 5G i.e low and mid-band networks.

These are ideal to cover a large distance with 5G service. Spectrum in the 1GHz to 6GHz range is considered mid-band, and it is considered ideal for most carriers as it can carry plenty of data over significant distances. As such, the n78 5G band (3300-3800MHz) will remain one of the crucial bands to be supported by smartphones to take advantage of the 5G network in most places.

The low band spectrum (<1GHz) is ideal to cover a large area with 5G service that ranges in speed between 30 to 250 megabits per second (Mbps).

The millimeter wave falls under the third bucket of the spectrum. mmWave is very high on the spectrum chart with 24GHz band and higher frequency. The high-band tower delivers high-speed internet but the spectrum itself is quite limited, so signals can’t travel very far. In most cases, these signals travel less than a mile and are also susceptible to interference from buildings and trees, so you often end up needing a clear line of sight from your phone to the tower. The exact details of the bids aren’t out yet as the auction is still underway, but it appears that bidders have largely focused on the mid-band spectrum for optimal coverage.
The following table lists the specified frequency bands and the corresponding frequency range to be deployed in the country :

5G bands Frequency range
n1 2100MHz
n3 1800MHz
n5 800MHz
n8 900MHz
n28 700MHz
n40 2300MHz
n41 2500MHz
n71 600MHz
n77 3300-4200MHz
n78 3300-3800MHz
n257 26.5GHz-29.5GHz
n258 26GHz(24.25-27.5 GHz)
n260 37.0GHz-40.0GHz
n261 27.5GHz-28.35GHz
The 5G Session Management Function (SMF) is a fundamental element of the 5G Service-Based Architecture (SBA). The SMF is primarily responsible for interacting with the decoupled data plane, creating updating and removing Protocol Data Unit (PDU) sessions and managing session context with the User Plane Function (UPF).


Both the UE and the gNB employs the Next Generation Application Protocol (NGAP) to carry Non Access Stratum (NAS) messages across the N1 or N2 reference interfaces in order to request a new session. The Access and Mobility Management Function (AMF) receives these requests and handles anything to do with connection or mobility management while forwarding session management requirements over the N11 interface to the SMF.

The AMF determines which SMF is best suited to handle the connection request by querying the Network Repository Function (NRF). That interface and the N11 interface between the AMF and the specific SMF assigned by the NRF, use the Service Based Interface (SBI) message bus, to which all Service-Base Application elements are connected.

The SBI message bus employs RESTful API principles over HTTP/2 -- web technologies that dramatically simplify and accelerate service deployments.


Messages received over the N11 interface represent a trigger to add, modify or delete a PDU session across the user plane. The SMF sends messages to the UPF over the N4 reference interface using the Packet Forwarding Control Protocol (PFCP).

Similar to OpenFlow, in nature, PFCP employs a well-known UDP port (8805) and was originally defined in release 14 specifications to support Control and User Plane Separation (CUPS).
During session establishment or modification, the SMF also interacts with the Policy Control Function (PCF) over the N7 interface and the subscriber profile information stored within the Unified Data Management (UDM) function (N10), which assumes the role previously performed by the HSS.

Employing the SBI Message Bus, the PCF provides the foundation of a policy framework which, along with the more typical QoS and charging rules, includes Network Slice selection, which is regulated by the Network Slice Selection Function (NSSF).

Decoupling other control plane functions from the user plane, while (together with the AMF) assuming the some of the functionality previously undertaken by the MME, the SMF performs the role of DHCP server and IP Address Management (IPAM) system.

Together with the UPF, the SMF maintains a record of PDU session state by means of a 24bit PDU Session ID. The SMF sets configuration parameters in the UPF that define traffic steering parameters and ensure the appropriate routing of packets while guaranteeing the delivery of incoming packets, though a Downlink (DL) data notification. In 4G EPC architectures, this is a SGW to MME message. The SMF is responsible for checking whether the UE requests are compliant with the user subscription and for connectivity charging, which is achieved by interacting with a Charging Function (CHF) defined within 3GPP TS 32.255.
This section describes the use cases that SMF supports in this release.
* Base SMF Configuration
* 4G Session Support with 5GS SBI Interfaces
* 5G Session Support
* 5GS-EPS Interworking
* Access and Mobility Support
* Charging Integration
* Cloud Native Infrastructure
* High Availability Support
* IPAM Support
* Lawful Intercept
* NRF Discovery Support
* Policy Integration
* RADIUS Support
* SMF Emergency Support
* SMF Inline Services
* SMF Specification Compliance
* UPF Integration
* VoLTE Support
* VoNR Support
* WiFi Support
The SMF supports interworking with EPS using the N26 interface (which is an inter-CN interface between the MME and the 5GS AMF) to enable interworking between the Evolved Packet Core (EPC) and the NG core networks. Support of the N26 interface in the network is optional for interworking. The N26 interface supports a subset of the functionalities over S10 interface to enable interworking. The UE uses the EPC NAS or 5GC NAS procedures that are based on the core network. The SMF supports QoS flow failures for access and mobility procedures.
The following features are related to this use case :
* 4G to 5G Data Session Handover Support
* Timers Support
* EPS Interworking
* Flow Failure Handling for Access and Mobility Procedures
The SMF communicates with the Unified Data Management (UDM) and Policy Control Function (PCF) to do the following:
* Procure the subscribed and authorized QoS parameters for the Guaranteed Bit Rate (GBR) and non-GBR flows
* Pass the relevant information to the UE (NAS), gNB (NGAP), and UPF (PFCP)
This ensures that all nodes on the network provide the desired QoS to the PDU session
The SMF uses the service-based N7 interface with the PCF to retrieve the session management policy information corresponding to the PDU session of the UE. The SMF selects the PCF during the PDU Session Establishment procedure. It also acts as a consumer of the PCF-provided session management policy service.
This section describes the interfaces supported between the SMF and other network functions in the 5GC.
* N4—Reference point between the SMF and UPF.
* N7—Reference point between the SMF and PCF.
* N10—Reference point between the UDM and SMF.
* N11—Reference point between the AMF and SMF.
* N40—Reference point between the SMF and CHF.
* S5—Interface between the PGW-C and S-GW.
* S2b—Interface between the PGW-C and ePDG.
5G technology has the potential to both enhance and potentially expose security and privacy risks.

* On the one hand, 5G offers enhanced security features, such as built-in encryption, secure boot, and secure firmware updates, that improve the security of the network infrastructure and devices. Additionally, the increased speed and low latency of 5G can improve the ability to detect and respond to security threats in real-time.

* On the other hand, 5G also introduces new security and privacy risks, including the potential for increased network complexity and a larger attack surface. 5G networks also rely on a complex ecosystem of devices and infrastructure that can be vulnerable to attack. Moreover, the increased use of cloud-based services and the growing number of connected devices raise concerns about the protection of personal data and privacy.

* To address these risks, it is important to implement strong security measures and standards across the entire 5G ecosystem, including devices, networks, and services. Regular software updates and security audits should also be performed to ensure that vulnerabilities are quickly detected and addressed.
Network slicing is a key feature of 5G networks that enables the creation of multiple virtual networks on top of a shared physical infrastructure.

* Each virtual network, or slice, can be customized to meet the specific requirements of different types of users and applications, such as enhanced mobile broadband, massive machine-type communications, and critical IoT.

* Network slicing is important for 5G networks because it enables network operators to provide tailored network services to different types of users and applications, each with its own set of requirements for things like bandwidth, latency, and reliability. This allows for more efficient use of network resources, improved service quality, and increased innovation.

* For example, a network slice for augmented reality applications may require low latency and high bandwidth, while a slice for critical IoT devices may require high reliability and low power consumption. By creating different slices for different use cases, 5G networks can support a wider range of services and applications, enabling new and innovative business models.
Millimeter wave (mmWave) technology is a key component of 5G networks, providing the high-frequency spectrum necessary for the high bandwidth and low latency requirements of 5G.

mmWave operates in the frequency range of 30 GHz to 300 GHz, which is much higher than the frequency range used in previous generations of cellular technology.

This higher frequency provides a large amount of available bandwidth, enabling much higher data rates than were possible in previous generations of cellular technology. This makes mmWave technology ideal for supporting 5G applications that require high bandwidth, such as virtual and augmented reality, remote surgery, and autonomous vehicles.

The main challenge with mmWave technology is its limited range and poor penetration capabilities, as the high frequency signals are absorbed by obstacles such as buildings and trees. To overcome these limitations, 5G networks using mmWave technology often require a denser deployment of small cells, which are low-power radio access points that can provide coverage in specific locations. This denser deployment also enables the use of beamforming techniques, which use multiple antennas to focus the radio signal in a specific direction, providing improved coverage and reliability.
5G technology has the potential to significantly impact the Internet of Things (IoT) and other emerging technologies by providing improved connectivity and performance.

For IoT, 5G technology offers several key benefits, including increased bandwidth, low latency, and support for a large number of connected devices. This can enable new use cases for IoT, such as real-time monitoring and control of industrial processes, remote surgery, and autonomous vehicles.

In addition to IoT, 5G technology also has the potential to enable new applications and services across a wide range of industries, such as healthcare, manufacturing, and entertainment. For example, 5G technology can provide the high-speed, low-latency connectivity required for virtual and augmented reality applications, enabling new forms of immersive media and entertainment.

Moreover, 5G technology can also support the development of other emerging technologies, such as edge computing, which allows data processing to be performed at the edge of the network, closer to the devices generating the data. This can reduce latency and improve the performance of applications that require real-time processing.
The benefits and drawbacks of 5G technology are as follows :

Benefits of 5G technology :

* Increased speed and bandwidth : 5G technology promises to deliver significantly higher speeds and bandwidth compared to previous generations of cellular technology, enabling new applications and services that require high-speed connectivity.

* Lower latency : 5G technology has much lower latency compared to previous generations of cellular technology, making it suitable for applications that require real-time response, such as autonomous vehicles and remote surgery.

* Improved network efficiency : 5G technology enables network slicing, which allows multiple virtual networks to be created on a shared physical infrastructure, improving the efficiency of network resources and enabling new business models.

* Enhanced support for IoT : 5G technology provides improved connectivity and performance for the Internet of Things (IoT), enabling new use cases for IoT and improving the quality of existing IoT applications.

Drawbacks of 5G technology :

* Limited coverage : The initial rollout of 5G networks may be limited to specific geographic areas, and the high-frequency spectrum used by 5G technology has limited range and poor penetration capabilities, which can result in limited coverage in certain areas.

* High deployment costs : The deployment of 5G technology is expensive, requiring a denser deployment of small cells and other infrastructure, which can result in higher costs for network operators and users.

* Security and privacy risks : 5G technology introduces new security and privacy risks, such as the potential for increased network complexity and a larger attack surface, which need to be carefully managed to protect against potential threats.

* Interference with other technologies : 5G technology operates in the same frequency range as some other technologies, such as weather radar, which can result in interference and potentially impact the performance of these technologies.
The deployment of 5G networks is facing several challenges, including limited spectrum availability, high deployment costs, security and privacy risks, and technical limitations such as limited coverage and interference with other technologies. These challenges are being addressed through a combination of technical innovations, spectrum allocation and management, and regulatory measures.

Spectrum allocation and management : 5G technology requires access to high-frequency spectrum in the millimeter wave (mmWave) range, which is a limited resource. Governments and regulators around the world are working to allocate and manage this spectrum to support the deployment of 5G networks.

Technical innovations : Technical innovations, such as beamforming, network slicing, and edge computing, are being developed and deployed to overcome the limitations of 5G technology, such as limited coverage and interference with other technologies.

Regulatory measures : Governments and regulators are working to create a supportive regulatory environment for the deployment of 5G networks, including measures to support network deployment and reduce costs, as well as measures to address security and privacy risks.

Partnerships and collaborations : Network operators and technology companies are forming partnerships and collaborations to share resources and expertise, reducing deployment costs and accelerating the rollout of 5G networks.
5G technology has the potential to enable a wide range of new applications and services across many different industries, and future advancements are likely to further expand the capabilities of 5G networks.

Some potential applications and future advancements include :

Internet of Things (IoT) : 5G technology provides improved connectivity and performance for the Internet of Things (IoT), enabling new use cases for IoT, such as real-time monitoring and control of industrial processes, and remote surgery.

Autonomous vehicles : 5G technology provides low latency and high-speed connectivity required for autonomous vehicles, enabling new forms of transportation and mobility services.

Virtual and Augmented Reality (VR/AR) : 5G technology can provide the high-speed, low-latency connectivity required for virtual and augmented reality (VR/AR) applications, enabling new forms of immersive media and entertainment.

Healthcare : 5G technology can enable new telemedicine and remote healthcare services, improving access to medical care and reducing costs.

Manufacturing : 5G technology can enable new Industry 4.0 and smart factory applications, improving efficiency and productivity in manufacturing.

Edge computing : 5G technology can support the development of edge computing, allowing data processing to be performed at the edge of the network, closer to the devices generating the data, reducing latency and improving performance.

Network slicing : 5G technology enables network slicing, which allows multiple virtual networks to be created on a shared physical infrastructure, improving the efficiency of network resources and enabling new business models.

Sources : qualcomm, cisco, verizon, techtarget, more..