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5G Network Interview Questions
5G Network is the fifth generation of wireless technology, providing higher speed, lower latency and greater capacity than 4G LTE networks. It can make a significant impact on how we live, work and play.

5G wireless technology is meant to deliver higher multi-Gbps peak data speeds, ultra low latency, more reliability, massive network capacity, increased availability, and a more uniform user experience to more users. Higher performance and improved efficiency empower new user experiences and connects new industries.

Speed : 5G can provide high speed (up to 10x faster than median speeds of 4G LTE)

Highlighting key features and use-cases : mobile broadband, massive IoT, and mission-critical services.
No one company or person owns 5G, but there are several companies within the mobile ecosystem that are contributing to bringing 5G to life. Qualcomm has played a major role in inventing the many foundational technologies that drive the industry forward and make up 5G, the next wireless standard.
 
We are at the heart of the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP), the industry organization that defines the global specifications for 3G UMTS (including HSPA), 4G LTE, and 5G technologies.
 
3GPP is driving many essential inventions across all aspects of 5G design, from the air interface to the service layer. Other 3GPP 5G members range from infrastructure vendors and component/device manufacturers to mobile network operators and vertical service providers.
Wireless networks are composed of cell sites divided into sectors that send data through radio waves. Fourth-generation (4G) Long-Term Evolution (LTE) wireless technology provides the foundation for 5G. Unlike 4G, which requires large, high-power cell towers to radiate signals over longer distances, 5G wireless signals are transmitted through large numbers of small cell stations located in places like light poles or building roofs. The use of multiple small cells is necessary because the millimeter wave (mmWave) spectrum-- the band of spectrum between 30 and 300 gigahertz (Ghz) that 5G relies on to generate high speeds -- can only travel over short distances and is subject to interference from weather and physical obstacles, like buildings or trees.
 
Previous generations of wireless technology have used lower-frequency bands of spectrum. To offset the challenges relating to distance and interference with mmWave, the wireless industry is also considering the use of a lower-frequency spectrum for 5G networks so network operators could use spectrum they already own to build out their new networks. Lower-frequency spectrum reaches greater distances but has lower speed and capacity than mmWave.

The lower frequency wireless spectrum is made up of low- and midband frequencies. Low-band frequencies operate at around 600 to 700 megahertz (MHz), while midband frequencies operate at around 2.5 to 3.5 GHz. This is compared to high-band mmWave signals, which operate at approximately 24 to 39 GHz.
 
MmWave signals can be easily blocked by objects such as trees, walls and buildings -- meaning that, much of the time, mmWave can only cover about a city block within direct line of sight of a cell site or node. Different approaches have been tackled regarding how to get around this issue. A brute-force approach involves using multiple nodes around each block of a populated area so that a 5G-enabled device can use an Air interface -- switching from node to node while maintaining MM wave speeds.
5G is based on OFDM (Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing), a method of modulating a digital signal across several different channels to reduce interference. 5G uses 5G NR air interface alongside OFDM principles. 5G also uses wider bandwidth technologies such as sub-6 GHz and mmWave.
 
Like 4G LTE, 5G OFDM operates based on the same mobile networking principles. However, the new 5G New Radio(NR) air interface can further enhance OFDM to deliver a much higher degree of flexibility and scalability. This could provide more 5G access to more people and things for a variety of different use cases.
 
5G will bring wider bandwidths by expanding the usage of spectrum resources, from sub-3 GHz used in 4G to 100 GHz and beyond. 5G can operate in both lower bands (e.g., sub-6 GHz) as well as mmWave (e.g., 24 GHz and up), which will bring extreme capacity, multi-Gbps throughput, and low latency.
The previous generations of mobile networks are 1G, 2G, 3G, and 4G.
 
First generation - 1G : 1980s: 1G delivered analog voice.
 
Second generation - 2G : Early 1990s: 2G introduced digital voice (e.g. CDMA- Code Division Multiple Access).
 
Third generation - 3G : Early 2000s: 3G brought mobile data (e.g. CDMA2000).
 
Fourth generation - 4G LTE : 2010s: 4G LTE ushered in the era of mobile broadband.
 
1G, 2G, 3G, and 4G all led to 5G, which is designed to provide more connectivity than was ever available before.
 
5G is a unified, more capable air interface. It has been designed with an extended capacity to enable next-generation user experiences, empower new deployment models and deliver new services.

5g different side
With high speeds, superior reliability and negligible latency, 5G will expand the mobile ecosystem into new realms. 5G will impact every industry, making safer transportation, remote healthcare, precision agriculture, digitized logistics — and more — a reality.
5G Master Information Block (MIB) includes system information transmitted on xBCH transport channel and xBCCH logical channel. The IE (Information Element) XSystemInformationBlock contains RRC (radio resource configuration) information which is common for all UEs. It is transmitted on xBCCH logical channel and xBCH transport channel.
There are several reasons that 5G will be better than 4G :
 
• 5G is significantly faster than 4G
• 5G has more capacity than 4G
• 5G has significantly lower latency than 4G
• 5G is a unified platform that is more capable than 4G
• 5G uses spectrum better than 4G
 
5G is a unified platform that is more capable than 4G : While 4G LTE focused on delivering much faster mobile broadband services than 3G, 5G is designed to be a unified, more capable platform that not only elevates mobile broadband experiences, but also supports new services such as mission-critical communications and the massive IoT. 5G can also natively support all spectrum types (licensed, shared, unlicensed) and bands (low, mid, high), a wide range of deployment models (from traditional macro-cells to hotspots), and new ways to interconnect (such as device-to-device and multi-hop mesh).
 
5G uses spectrum better than 4G : 5G is also designed to get the most out of every bit of spectrum across a wide array of available spectrum regulatory paradigms and bands—from low bands below 1 GHz, to mid bands from 1 GHz to 6 GHz, to high bands known as millimeter wave (mmWave).
 
5G is faster than 4G : 5G can be significantly faster than 4G, delivering up to 20 Gigabits-per-second (Gbps) peak data rates and 100+ Megabits-per-second (Mbps) average data rates.
 
5G has more capacity than 4G : 5G is designed to support a 100x increase in traffic capacity and network efficiency.1
 
5G has lower latency than 4G : 5G has significantly lower latency to deliver more instantaneous, real-time access: a 10x decrease in end-to-end latency down to 1ms.1
5G is driving global growth :

*  $13.1 Trillion dollars of global economic output
*  $22.8 Million new jobs created
*  $265B global 5G CAPEX and R&D annually over the next 15 years

Through a landmark 5G Economy study, we found that 5G’s full economic effect will likely be realized across the globe by 2035—supporting a wide range of industries and potentially enabling up to $13.1 trillion worth of goods and services.

This impact is much greater than previous network generations. The development requirements of the new 5G network are also expanding beyond the traditional mobile networking players to industries such as the automotive industry.

The study also revealed that the 5G value chain (including OEMs, operators, content creators, app developers, and consumers) could alone support up to 22.8 million jobs, or more than one job for every person in Beijing, China. And there are many emerging and new applications that will still be defined in the future. Only time will tell what the full “5G effect” on the economy is going to be.
5G is designed to do a variety of things that can transform our lives, including giving us faster download speeds, low latency, and more capacity and connectivity for billions of devices—especially in the areas of virtual reality (VR), the IoT, and artificial intelligence (AI).
 
For example, with 5G, you can access new and improved experiences including near-instant access to cloud services, multiplayer cloud gaming, shopping with augmented reality, and real-time video translation and collaboration, and more.
C-Band is a mid-band wireless spectrum that is now part of Verizon’s 5G Ultra Wideband network. C-band spectrum provides a valuable middle ground between capacity and coverage for 5G networks, and takes advantage of 5G speed while expanding mobility, home broadband and business internet solutions to millions of customers.

Sources : qualcomm, cisco, verizon, techtarget, more..