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Space - General Knowledge Questions
A)
ISRO
B)
NASA
C)
SpaceX
D)
Axiom Space

Correct Answer :   ISRO

ISRO, the Indian Space Research Organisation, has shortlisted two of its four trained Gaganyaan astronauts to participate in the Axiom-4 mission to the International Space Station (ISS).

This private spaceflight mission, operated by Axiom Space in collaboration with NASA, aims to advance commercial activities in space and conduct various scientific experiments in microgravity.

The mission is scheduled for 2024 and will utilize a SpaceX Crew Dragon spacecraft launched atop a Falcon 9 rocket, highlighting ISRO's involvement in international space collaborations.

A)
Boeing
B)
SpaceX
C)
Blue Origin
D)
Lockheed Martin

Correct Answer :   SpaceX

SpaceX has been awarded an $843 million contract by NASA to develop a spacecraft designed to safely deorbit the International Space Station (ISS) by approximately 2030.

This contract marks a significant step in NASA's plans to manage the controlled deorbiting of the ISS at the end of its operational life, ensuring a safe re-entry into Earth's atmosphere and minimizing space debris.

A)
PSLV C45
B)
PSLV C58
C)
PSLV C54
D)
GSLV Mk III

Correct Answer :   PSLV C54

Dhruva Space's Thybolt-1 and Thybolt-2 satellites were launched by ISRO's PSLV C54 in November 2022.

These satellites completed 15,000 orbits around Earth as part of their mission, marking a significant achievement for the Hyderabad-based space tech startup in satellite technology and deployment.

A)
China
B)
North Korea
C)
Bangladesh
D)
Afghanistan

Correct Answer :   China

Pakistan has launched its second satellite, the Multi-Mission Communication Satellite (PAKSAT MM1), in collaboration with China. This satellite aims to enhance internet connectivity across Pakistan and improve various communication services.

Launch Details :

The PAKSAT MM1 was launched from China’s Xichang Satellite Launch Center in Sichuan province, achieving its planned orbit successfully.

Features and Benefits :

PAKSAT MM1 is poised to provide improved internet facilities, enhance television broadcasts, cellular phone services, and broadband connectivity. It is scheduled to commence its services in August.

Prime Minister’s Remarks :

Prime Minister Shehbaz Sharif expressed optimism about the satellite’s potential to revolutionize Pakistan’s digital landscape. He highlighted its impact on internet connectivity, economic activities, e-commerce, and e-governance.

Collaborative Efforts :

The launch underscores the strong partnership between Pakistan and China. Prime Minister Sharif emphasized the importance of such collaborations in advancing technology for the benefit of both nations.

National Space Programme :

PAKSAT MM1 is part of Pakistan’s National Space Programme 2047, indicating the country’s commitment to bolstering its space capabilities.

Future Prospects :

Pakistan aims to launch satellites from its own space launch center in the near future, showcasing its evolving space ambitions.

Previous Achievements :

Prior to PAKSAT MM1, Pakistan has launched several assets into space, including satellites like BADR-A, BADR-B, PAKSAT 1-R, PRSS-1, PakTes 1-A, and iCube-Qamar, demonstrating its growing presence in space exploration.

A)
ISRO
B)
JAXA
C)
CNSA
D)
NASA

Correct Answer :   NASA

NASA has unveiled its ambitious plan to construct the first lunar railway system, known as FLOAT (Flexible Levitation on a Track), designed to revolutionize payload transport on the Moon. This innovative system aims to provide reliable, autonomous, and efficient transportation essential for the daily operations of a sustainable lunar base, aligning with NASA’s Moon to Mars initiative and mission concepts like the Robotic Lunar Surface Operations 2 (RLSO2).

An Overview of FLOAT System :

The FLOAT system utilizes unpowered magnetic robots that levitate over a 3-layer flexible film track. These tracks consist of a graphite layer for passive floating using diamagnetic levitation, a flex-circuit layer for generating electromagnetic thrust to propel robots along the tracks, and an optional thin-film solar panel layer for power generation when exposed to sunlight. By eliminating moving parts, FLOAT robots minimize lunar dust abrasion and wear, providing a durable and long-lasting transportation solution.

Key Features of FLOAT

Here are the key features of Flexible Levitation on a Track System (FLOAT System) :

* Magnetic Levitation Technology : FLOAT will utilize magnetic robots levitating over a specially designed three-layer film track, minimizing abrasion from lunar dust.

* Payload Capacity : The transport system is projected to move at approximately 1.61 kilometers per hour, with the capability to transport up to 100 tons of material daily to and from NASA’s future lunar base.

* Targeted Applications : FLOAT will primarily serve as a transportation service for areas where astronauts are active, transporting lunar soil and other materials across the lunar surface. Additionally, it will facilitate the transportation of larger loads of materials and equipment between spacecraft landing sites and base locations.

Purpose and Functionality of FLOAT

FLOAT is envisioned as a robotic transport system designed to support daily operations on the lunar surface. Its primary functions include transporting materials, such as lunar regolith, to different areas, and facilitating the movement of equipment to and from spacecraft landing sites. This system is crucial for enabling sustained human presence on the moon by providing essential resources and logistical support.

Technology Behind FLOAT :

Developed by engineers at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in California, FLOAT employs magnetic levitation technology similar to that used in high-speed rail systems. The system features flat, magnetic panels, or “robots,” that levitate above a track without any moving parts. Propelled by electromagnetic energy, these robots can transport payloads across the lunar surface efficiently and reliably.

Integration with Artemis Program :

FLOAT is poised to play a pivotal role in NASA’s Artemis program, which aims to return astronauts to the moon for the first time since 1972. With a target landing date of September 2026, the Artemis program represents a significant milestone in space exploration, with FLOAT serving as a cornerstone for sustainable lunar exploration and habitation.

A)
NASA
B)
ISRO
C)
JAXA
D)
CNSA

Correct Answer :   ISRO

ISRO, through the Liquid Propulsion Systems Centre (LPSC) with support from other launch vehicle centers, is advancing the development of a semi-cryogenic propulsion system. This system aims to enhance the payload capacity of Launch Vehicle Mark-3 (LVM3) and future launch vehicles by utilizing a 2,000 kN thrust semi-cryogenic engine powered by a combination of liquid oxygen (LOX) and kerosene.

Major Accomplishment: Successful Ignition of Semi-Cryo Pre-Burner :

A significant milestone in ISRO’s semi-cryogenic engine development is the successful ignition of the semi-cryo pre-burner. This achievement, crucial for initiating the semi-cryogenic engine, was realized through testing conducted at the Isro Propulsion Complex (IPRC) in Mahendragiri.

Ignition Process and Fuel Ampule :

The ignition process of the semi-cryogenic engine involves the use of a start fuel ampule, utilizing a combination of Triethyle Alumnide and Triethyle Boron. Developed by the Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (VSSC), this unique fuel combination was employed for the first time in an ISRO engine.

Next Steps: Engine Development and Testing :

Following the successful pre-burner ignition, ISRO will proceed with the development and testing of the engine powerhead test article and fully integrated engine. Additionally, efforts are underway for the development of a semi-cryo stage with 120 tons of propellant loading, marking further progress in the project.

A)
China
B)
Russia
C)
Japan
D)
South Korea

Correct Answer :   China

Pakistan’s Institute of Space Technology (IST) said on April 30 that the lunar mission iCube-Q will be launched on 3 May 2024 aboard China’s Chang’e 6 lunar probe, according to a report by Dawn.

The satellite was developed by IST in partnership with China’s Shanghai University SJTU and Suparco, which is the national space agency of Pakistan. It carries two optical cameras and will capture images of the Moon’s surface.

The Chinese embassy in Pakistan also confirmed the development and said the Chang’e 6 lunar probe will carry payloads from France, European Space Agency and Pakistan on a round trip.

“Pakistan Space & Upper Atmosphere Research Commission, #SUPARCO’s logo is seen on China’s most powerful rocket #LongMarch5! Together with China’s #ChangE6 lunar probe and payloads from France and #ESA, Pakistan’s CubeSat is ready to go to the moon in just a few days!” the embassy said in a post on X.



According to the report, Chang’e 6 is the sixth lunar exploration mission of China. The mission, which will be launched from Hainan province in China, will collect soil and rock samples from the darker side of the Moon, making it the first to attempt such an endeavor, according to media reports..

Source : Money Control

A)
USA
B)
UK
C)
Russia
D)
India

Correct Answer :   Russia

Russia successfully tested its Angara-A5 space rocket for the first time on April 11, 2024. The test launch was conducted from the Vostochny Cosmodrome in the Far East of Russia. In fact, rocket test launches on April 9 and 10 were cancelled due to a malfunction in the pressurization system and a problem with the engine launch-control system.

Previous Launch Attempts and Cancellations

* Two previous launch attempts on April 9 and 10 were canceled due to technical issues.
* The April 9 launch was canceled due to a malfunction in the pressurization system, while the April 10 launch was canceled because of a problem with the engine launch-control system.

Third Test Launch a Success :

* The April 11 launch was Russia’s third test of the Angara-A5 rocket, and it was successful.
* The launch coincided with Cosmonaut Day, which commemorates Yuri Gagarin’s historic spaceflight 63 years ago.

Rocket Performance and Specifications :

* The Angara-A5 rocket reached an altitude of more than 25,000 kilometers (15,500 miles) per hour within minutes of launch.
* The Angara-A5 is a three-stage rocket that stands 54.5 meters (178.81 feet) tall and weighs about 773 tons, with a payload capacity of 24.5 tons.

The Angara Project

* Russia launched the Angara project in 1991, shortly after the dissolution of the Soviet Union, to develop a domestically produced launch vehicle.
* The first Angara-A5 test flight took place in 2014, and a second test was conducted in 2020 from the Plesetsk Cosmodrome in northern Russia.
* A partial test of the Angara project in 2021 was unsuccessful.

Significance of the Angara Rocket

* The Angara-A5 is designed to replace Russia’s Proton launcher and maintain Russia’s access to space after the expiration of the lease on the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan in 2050.
* President Vladimir Putin has touted the Angara’s role in national security, although the project has faced significant delays and technical setbacks.
* Russia hopes to use the Angara’s cargo capabilities to deliver modules to a rival space station that it plans to build in the coming years.

A)
2035
B)
2040
C)
2045
D)
2050

Correct Answer :   2040

ISRO Chief S Somanath announced that India aims to land an astronaut on the moon by 2040, as part of the upcoming Chandrayaan-4 mission, highlighting India's ambitious lunar exploration goals and the progress in ISRO's space projects.

A)
Dhruv space
B)
Tata Advanced Systems Limited
C)
Agnikul Cosmos
D)
Skyroot Aerospace

Correct Answer :   Tata Advanced Systems Limited

Tata Advanced Systems Ltd (TASL), in collaboration with Satellogic, has successfully launched India’s inaugural private sector-built sub-metre resolution earth observation satellite, TSAT-1A. This significant milestone marks a new era in India’s space endeavors, offering enhanced surveillance capabilities to the country.

Collaboration and Launch Details :

The collaboration between TASL and Satellogic resulted in the successful launch of TSAT-1A from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, aboard Elon Musk’s SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket on April 7, 2024. Assembled at TASL’s Vemagal facility in Karnataka, TSAT-1A promises high-resolution optical satellite imagery with multispectral and hyperspectral capabilities.

Technical Specifications and Significance :

TSAT-1A boasts sub-metre resolution (0.5-0.8 meters natively) which can be further enhanced to 0.5 to 0.6-meter super resolution using software. Weighing less than 50 kg and positioned in low-earth orbit, it offers increased collection capacity and low-latency delivery of satellite images, catering to the needs of various sectors including defense and commercial enterprises.

Target Customers and Future Plans :

CEO and MD of TASL, Sukaran Singh, highlighted that the primary customers for TSAT-1A would be government agencies, particularly the Indian armed forces, with plans to extend services to commercial clients. Singh also emphasized the importance of the inclined orbit for frequent revisits to areas of interest, enhancing surveillance capabilities.

Future Endeavors and Space Facilities :

TASL aims to expand its capabilities in the space sector by focusing on areas including assembly, integration, and testing of satellites, data processing, and satellite control centers. Collaboration with ISRO for future launches is also envisioned, showcasing TASL’s commitment to furthering India’s space exploration efforts.

Congratulations and Acknowledgments :

Emiliano Kargieman, CEO at Satellogic, commended the efficient collaboration between TASL and Satellogic, highlighting the adaptability of Satellogic’s Space Systems program in meeting specific satellite requirements and achieving timely launches.