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Microsoft Azure Interview Questions
Azure is a cloud computing platform which was launched by Microsoft in Feb 2010. It is a highly flexible cloud platform that offers development, data storage, service hosting, and service management.
The Azure platform has more than 200 products & services that provide solutions for different problems that companies might face today. Applications can be customized, built, and deployed as per business needs.
* Azure Cloud Service is a classic example of a platform as a service (PaaS). This was designed to support those applications which demand high scalability, reliability, and availability all within the constraints of reduced cost of operations. These are hosted on virtual VMs and Azure provides more control over them by letting the developers install the necessary software and enabling them to control remotely.

* Azure cloud services are used for deploying multi-tier web-based applications in Azure by means of creating an instance of cloud service. It is also possible to define multiple roles such as web roles, worker roles, etc for the purpose of distributed processing. Azure cloud services help in the easier and flexible scalability of the application.

* Each role of the cloud service has its own purpose and thereby its own configuration and application files.
Following are the three cloud deployment models :
Public Cloud : The infrastructure is owned by your cloud provider and the server that you are using could be a multi-tenant system.
Private Cloud : The infrastructure is owned by you or your cloud provider gives you that service exclusively. For eg: Hosting your website on your servers, or hosting your website with the cloud provider on a dedicated server.
Hybrid Cloud : When you use both Public Cloud, Private Cloud together, it is called Hybrid Cloud. For Example: Using your in-house servers for confidential data, and the public cloud for hosting your company’s public facing website. This type of setup would be a hybrid cloud.
A role instance is nothing but a virtual machine where the application code runs with the help of running role configurations. There can also be multiple instances of a role as per the definition in the cloud service configuration files.
Roles are nothing servers in layman terms. These servers are managed, load balanced, Platform as a Service virtual machines that work together to achieve a common goal.
There are 3 types of roles in Microsoft Azure :
* Web Role
* Worker Role
* VM  Role

Let’s discuss each of these roles in detail:
Web Role : A web role is basically used to deploy a website, using languages supported by the IIS platform like, PHP, .NET etc. It is configured and customized to run web applications.

Worker Role : A worker role is more like an help to the Web role, it used to execute background processes unlike the Web Role which is used to deploy the website.

VM Role : The VM role is used by a user to schedule tasks and other windows services. This role can be used to customize the machines on which the web and worker role is running.
This is not supported. You cannot use Azure Resource Manager to deploy a virtual machine into a virtual network that was created using classic deployment.
Virtual machine scale sets are Azure compute resource that you can use to deploy and manage a set of identical VMs. With all the VMs configured the same, scale sets are designed to support true autoscale, and no pre-provisioning of VMs is required. So it’s easier to build large-scale services that target big compute, big data, and containerized workloads.
If the above question appears as the Azure cloud interview questions your most appropriate answer will be scaling is one of the advantages that are of two types;
Vertical scaling, where the configuration yields to increase the existing capacity of the machine. Just like expanding the size of the RAM from 4GB to 32GB.

Horizontal Scaling, an aspect where the physical aspect is increased like putting multiple machines at work instead of replacing the existing machine.
There are several advantages of cloud computing which are as follows : 

* The main advantages of cloud computing systems are reduced operational and IT maintenance costs and faster development, leading to improved time to market products and services.

* There is infinite storage capacity and high availability. 
* Cloud computing systems allow for rapid application development without businesses worrying about their infrastructure, software, and hardware requirements.

* They are highly available which increases its end users to get benefited by every inch.

* The system is capable of tolerating fault of a single part and overcomes it by remaining completely functional.

* The service allows you to pay only when the system is in use. You can easily reallocate the system when you use them and get saved from the charge.

* The system has brought into light the payment for the operation rather than the investment in the machines.

* Cloud systems are cost-efficient, flexible, and secure. The failover and backup processes are straightforward.
Public cloud Private cloud
Not fully customizable Completely customizable
Suitable for content that is not too sensitive Suitable for highly confidential data
Supports multiple customers Supports a cluster of dedicated customers
Virtualized resources are shared publicly  Virtualized resources are shared privately
Connects over the internet Connects over a private network and fiber
Lower cost of operations as services are managed by the provider Higher price because of customizations and control
These are the basic terms while dealing with the cloud services and are commonly asked in an Azure interview:
PaaS stands for Platform as a Service that enables you to get a platform to deliver without directly giving authorization to the OS software.

SaaS stands for Software as a Service is devoid of platform infrastructure software that can be used without direct purchase.

IaaS stands for Infrastructure as a Service which enables you to get the hardware from the provider as the desired service which can be configured by the user.
Some benefits of Azure are :
* Flexibility and agility
* Powerful capabilities with many services like database, HDInsight, CDN, VPN, analytics, media, mobile services, etc.
* Free setup and account creation with limited features
* On-demand scalability
* High security and reliability of data
* Analytics and big data insights
* Hybrid model thus giving best of services
* Azure Diagnostics API helps us collect diagnostic data such as performance monitoring, system event logs, etc from the applications that are running on Azure.

* For the verbose monitoring of the data, Azure Diagnostics has to be enabled for the cloud service roles.

* The diagnostics data can be used for building visual chart representations for better monitoring and also for creating performance metric alerts.
* The Azure Service Level Agreement(SLA) is a contract that ensures or guarantees that when two or more role instances of a role are deployed on Azure, access to that cloud service is guaranteed for at least 99.95% of the time.
* It also states that if the role instance process is not in the running state, then the detection of such processes and corrective action for the same will be taken 99.9% of the time.

* If the mentioned guarantees are not satisfied at any point in time, then Azure credits a percentage of monthly fees to us depending on the pricing model of the respective Azure services.
15 .
NSG stands for Network Security Group that has a list of ACL (Access Control List) rules which either allows/denies network traffic to subnets or NICs (Network Interface Card) connected to a subnet or both. When NSG is linked with a subnet, then the ACL rules are applied to all the Virtual Machines in that subnet. 
Restrictions of traffic to individual NIC can be done by associating NSG directly to that NIC.
Technical problems are called break-fix issue, it is an industry term which refers to “work involved in supporting a technology when it fails in the normal course of its function, which requires intervention by a support organization to be restored to working order”.
Azure Active Directory is an Identity and Access Management system. It is used to grant access to your employees to specific products and services in your network. For example:, twitter etc. Azure AD has some in-built support for applications in its gallery which can be added directly.
Azure AD has around 2600 pre-integrated applications. All pre-integrated applications support Single Sign-On (SSO). SSO let you use your organizational credentials to access your apps. Some of the applications also support automated provisioning and de-provisioning.

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Azure AD gives you an easy and secure way to connect to the web applications you choose. You can access these applications in the same way you access your SaaS apps in Azure AD, no need for a VPN to change your network infrastructure.
Azure Service Fabric is a distributed systems platform that makes it easy to package, deploy, and manage scalable and reliable micro-services. Service Fabric also addresses the significant challenges in developing and managing cloud applications. Developers and administrators can avoid complex infrastructure problems and focus on implementing mission-critical, demanding workloads that are scalable, reliable, and manageable. Service Fabric represents the next-generation middleware platform for building and managing these enterprise-class, tier-1, cloud-scale applications.
Redis is an open source (BSD licensed), in-memory data structure store, used as a database, cache and message broker. Azure Redis Cache is based on the popular open-source Redis cache. It gives you access to a secure, dedicated Redis cache, managed by Microsoft, and accessible from any application within Azure.  It supports data structures such as strings, hashes, lists, sets, sorted sets with range queries, bitmaps, hyperloglogs and geospatial indexes with radius queries.
When asked as the Azure cloud interview question you should answer it in the following way. There are various deployment models for the cloud :
* Private Cloud Deployment Model is one where you own the infrastructure and the cloud provider enables you to get the service exclusively.

* Public Cloud Deployment Model is one where you get the multi-tenant infrastructure from the service provider exclusively.

* Hybrid Cloud Deployment Model is a set up of intermixed public and private data in which the confidential data will be served in-house and the public directed website is there to address the public.
Messages are transferred to the DeadLetter queue in the following situation.
* When the delivery count has exceeded for a message that is on a queue.
* When the expiry date of the message has crossed and the entire expired message is held in a queue.
* When there is an evaluation exception set by default and the subscription is enabled with dead letter filter.
The prices vary in accordance with the product type. The various pricing models are : 
* The free model where our customers can avail the system exempted from the market fee.

* The BYOL scheme where the Azure is fetched the Azure with a fee that is not encircled around the limits of market price.

* The trial of the free software where the client gets the full version with an advanced feature for a limited period of time. With the expiration of the introductory period, you will be charged standard rates.

* Usage Based Fee that is billed in accordance with the service that you have taken. Like if you are subscribed for the virtual image then hourly fees may be charged.

* Monthly bills are activated if you sign a particular plan. The fee is not allocated for cancellation or mid-month unused service.
Azure AWS
Azure was launched in 2010, a few years after AWS It was launched in 2006
11-12% market share about 31% share in the market
Provides integration with all Microsoft tools and open source support, provides Hybrid cloud, contains a broad set of features Mature and extensive offerings with many features like monitoring, security, configuration, etc., open and flexible, has a better global reach
Compared to AWS, it is not so much enterprise-ready Too many options making it challenging to use; needs extensive cost management 
Follows on-demand pricing with per minute usage On-demand pricing on per hour basis
Maximum memory in VM is 3800 GB Maximum memory in VM is 3904 GB
Virtual servers are managed using virtual machines and scale sets Virtual servers are managed using Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2)
Docker container registry: Container registry  Docker container registry: using EC2 container registry
Blob storage Simple Storage Services (S3)
There are several benefits of enterprise warehousing :
Data integration : Centralized data placement ensures higher data availability and saving time and resources

Risk reduction : If data is messy and dirty, it may lead to many errors in interpretation and processing. Having clean, organized data can reduce risks and improve productivity.

Streamlined reporting : Data can be easily accessed and converted into reports with high accuracy

Better revenue and profits : Because of centralized storage, data entry and reporting can be automated, saving money and focusing more on business
Connected lookup Unconnected lookup
Can use static or dynamic cache Uses static cache
Input is directly received from a pipeline Input is received as a result of a :LKP expression in some other transformation
Provides support for user-defined values (default) No support for default user-defined values
If there are no matching results for the lookup condition, the service returns a default value A NULL value is returned if there is no match
Windows Azure has the following three principal segments :
Windows Azure Compute : It gives a code that can be managed by the hosting environment. It provides the benefit of calculation through parts. It consists of three types of roles - Web Role, Worker Role, and VM Role.

Windows Azure Storage : It gives four types of Storage services - Queue, Tables, Blobs, and Windows Azure Drives (VHD)

Windows Azure AppFabric : AppFabric provides five services - Service bus, Access, Caching, Integration, and Composite.
A storage key is an authentication method that can be used to validate access for the storage service account to control data based on our prerequisites. We have an alternative to give a primary access key and a secondary access key. The main reason for using a secondary access key is to avoid downtime to the application or website.
Microsoft Azure SQL database is a way to get associated with cloud services where we can store our database into the cloud. It has a similar component of SQL Server, i.e., high accessibility, versatility, and security in the core.
A cmdlet is a lightweight command that can be used as a part of the Microsoft Azure PowerShell environment. The cmdlets are summoned by the Azure PowerShell that automates the script, which is in the command line. Azure PowerShell runtime additionally invokes them automatically through Azure PowerShell APIs.
Cspack is a command-line tool, which is used to generate a service package file. It helps us to prepare an application for deployment, either in compute emulator or Microsoft Windows Azure.
The two types of blobs in Azure are :
* Block Blob
* Page Blob
az vm create `   
--resource-group myResourceGroup `   
--name myVM --image win2016datacenter `   
--admin-username Azure  
--admin-password Admin123! 
It is a cloud search-as-a-service solution that delegates server and infrastructure management to Microsoft, leaving us with a ready-to-use service that we can populate with our data and then use to add search to our web or mobile application. Azure search allows us to easily add a robust search experience to our applications using a simple REST API or .NET SDK without managing search infrastructure or becoming an expert in search.
Options for storing data includes :
* Azure files
* OS drive
* Scale set
* Temp drive
* Azure data service
* External data service
Majorly, two types of services you can build on Service Fabric :
Stateless Services : No state is stored in the service. The longer-term state is stored in an external database. This is the typical application/data layer approach to build services.

Stateful Services : The state is stored in the service. Allows the state to persist without the need for an external database.
It is a command-line tool that deploys a packaged application to the Windows Azure compute emulator and manages the running service.
Block blobs are comprised of blocks, each of which is identified by a block ID.
You create or modify a block blob by uploading a set of blocks and committing them by their block IDs.
If you are uploading a block blob that is no more than 64 MB in size, you can also upload it in its entirety with a single Put Blob operation. -Each block can be a maximum of 4 MB in size. The maximum size for a block blob in version 2009-09-19 is 200 GB or up to 50,000 blocks.
Page blobs are a collection of pages. A page is a range of data that is identified by its offset from the start of the blob. To create a page blob, you initialize the page blob by calling Put Blob and specifying its maximum size.
-The maximum size for a page blob is 1 TB. A page written to a page blob may be up to 1 TB in size.
what to use block blobs for streaming video. “The application must provide random read/write access” which is supported by Page Blobs
Windows Azure supports two types of queue mechanisms : Windows Azure Queues and Service Bus Queues.
Windows Azure Queues, which are part of the Windows Azure storage infrastructure, feature a simple REST-based Get/Put/Peek interface, providing reliable, persistent messaging within and between services.

Service Bus Queues are part of a broader Windows Azure messaging infrastructure dead-letters queuing as well as publish/subscribe, Web service remoting, and integration patterns.
To promote a deployment in the Azure staging environment to the production environment, you can “swap” the deployments by switching the VIPs by which the two deployments are accessed. After the deployment, the DNS name for the cloud service points to the deployment that had been in the staging environment.
Windows Azure will handle the load balancing for all of the instances that are created. The VM sizes are as follows :
* Compute Instance Size CPU Memory Instance Storage I/O Performance
* Extra Small 1.0 GHz 768 MB 20 GB Low
* Small 1.6 GHz 1.75 GB 225 GB Moderate
* Medium 2 x 1.6 GHz 3.5 GB 490 GB High
* Large 4 x 1.6 GHz 7 GB 1,000 GB High
* Extra-large 8 x 1.6 GHz 14 GB 2,040 GB High
Azure AD is a cloud-based IAM solution and directory by Microsoft. It brings together application access management, core directory services, and identity protection and turns them into a single solution. It helps employees of an organization sign in and access resources such as:
* External resources, including Microsoft 365, the Azure portal, and a big number of SaaS applications
* Internal resources, such as apps on a corporate network and intranet, as well as any cloud-based apps built by that organization

Azure AD is intended for use by :
* IT Admins
* App Developers
* Azure, Office 365, Microsoft 365, or Dynamics CRM online subscribers
Azure Data Factory is a serverless and cloud-based data integration service and platform used for the creation of ETL and ELT pipelines. It helps in the creation of data-driven workflows for the planning and execution of data movements and data transformation at scale.
Windows Azure Table storage service stores a lot of organized information. Windows Azure tables are perfect for putting away organized, non-relational data.
Table : A table is a collection of entities. Tables don’t uphold a blueprint on elements, which implies that a solitary table can contain substances that have distinctive arrangements of properties. A record can contain numerous tables.
Entity : An entity is an arrangement of properties, like a database row. An entity can be up to 1 MB in size.
Properties : A property is a name-value pair. Every entity can incorporate up to 252 properties to store data. Every entity likewise has three system properties that determine a segment key, a row key, and a timestamp.
Azure Diagnostics API helps to gather diagnostic data, such as system event logs and performance monitoring, from applications operating on Azure. Azure Diagnostics has to be enabled for the cloud service roles. The collected data can be later used for creating visual chart representations that enable better monitoring and create performance metric alerts.
There are two deployment environments :
Staging environment : It is used to validate the changes of an application before making it live.

Production environment : This is where applications go live and can be accessed by target users with a DNS-friendly URL.

Power State



Indicates the virtual machine is being started


Indicates that the virtual machine is running


Indicates that the virtual machine is being stopped


Indicates that the virtual machine is stopped


Indicates that the virtual machine is being deallocated


Indicates that the virtual machine is completely removed from the hypervisor but still available in the control plane. Virtual Machines in the deallocated state do not incur compute charges.

The following are some common reason for a cache disconnect.
Client-side causes
* The client application was redeployed.
* The client application performed a scaling operation.
* In the case of Cloud Services or Web Apps, this may be due to auto-scaling.
* The networking layer on the client side changed.
* Transient errors occurred in the client or in the network nodes between the client and the server.
* The bandwidth threshold limits were reached.
* CPU bound operations took too long to complete.

Server-side causes
* On the standard cache offering, the Azure Redis Cache service initiated a fail-over from the primary node to the secondary node.
* Azure was patching the instance where the cache was deployed
* This can be for Redis server updates or general VM maintenance.
The main difference  between Azure Scale Sets and Availability Sets are given below :
Criteria Azure Scale Sets Azure Availability Sets
Definition They are a group of identically configured VMs that are spread across multiple fault domains. They are the group of discretely configured VMs that are spread across various fault domains.
Default Domain These have 5 fault domains and update domains by default. By default, these have 3 fault domains and 5 update domains.
Workload Type These are used when there are unpredictable workloads that require the feature of auto scalability. These are used when there are predictable workload requirements.
Configuration Style Here, the VMs are configured and created in the same manner from the same image. Here, the VMs are created by making use of different images and configurations.
VM Count The number of VMs can be increased/decreased based on the demand or the pre-defined schedule. A VM can be added to an availability set only at the time of the set’s creation.
Distribution style Here, the VM scale sets can be distributed across multiple data centers or within a single data center. Here, the VMs are automatically distributed in a data center.
Some other ways to manage session states are :
* Windows Azure AppFabric caching : It is a distributed in-memory cache service giving fast access, and is officially supported by Microsoft. However, it is slightly expensive. Microsoft recommends this option and is automated provisioned based on the Windows Server AppFabric Caching Technology.

* InProc session : It stores the session in the web server’s memory, thus giving faster access. It is cost-effective but valid for a single instance only.
Yes. We can do so using Azure DevOps. It is a tool that automates the CI/CD process. To do so, you should : 
* Replicate (clone) the project into the system
* Commit the code
* Execute CI/CD
* Check the Azure CI/CD pipelines configured by the starter
* Create a sample DevOps project (ASP.NET) using the Azure DevOps Starter resource.
Azure Service Manager (ASM) Azure Resource Manager (ARM)
Provides cloud services majorly for IaaS workload and specific PaaS workloads A new portal that provides services for all IaaS and PaaS workloads
Removal of a resource is slightly tedious Resource removal is simple and easy by using Resource Groups
Deployment is done using PowerShell script Deployment is done using ARM templates 
Many features are not available in ASM Many features like resource tagging, resource movement within the same region, role-based access control feature etc. are available
Azure machine learning can train, deploy, manage, automate and track machine learning models in a cloud environment. You can use it for classical ML, deep learning, supervised, or unsupervised learning algorithms. Azure machine learning contains many tools like Azure machine learning designer, Jupyter/R notebooks, Machine learning CLI, TensorFlow, scikit-learn, PyTorch etc. 
PowerShell is a set of cmdlets that provides many features for automation. We can create, test, deploy and manage Azure resources and services from the Powershell command line. It is an extension of Windows PowerShell.
Azure data factory uses integration runtime to enable various data integration capabilities across the network environments. Integration runtimes are of three types:
Azure integration run time : It can copy data between cloud data stores and can dispatch the activity to various compute services like SQL server or HDInsight for data transformation

Self-hosted integration runtime : Useful to copy data between a cloud data store and a private network data store. It also dispatches transform activities on on-premises or virtual network resources. 

Azure SSIS integration runtime : Using this, we can execute SSIS packages natively in a managed environment. It is useful for shifting SSIS packages to the Azure data factory.
A build is the solution of an output. In Azure projects, you get the record with a .cspkg extension, that is, a Cloud Service Package is utilized for the deployment of your cloud administration.
Build Servers : In general terms, a build server is a machine where you put your deployment packages.
To utilize Team Foundation Build, you should have no less than one build machine. This machine can be a physical machine or a virtual machine.
Build Controllers : Manufacture Controllers are the component in the build system that accepts the build requests from any task inside the group project. Each build controller is dedicated to a solitary team project collection. So, there is a balanced relationship between a team project and a build controller.
Build Agents : Build Agents are components in the build system that accomplishes more processor-concentrated work.
To make an Azure HDInsight Cluster, open the Azure portal > click on New > select Data Services > click on HDInsight.
Hadoop is the default and native execution of Apache Hadoop.
HBase is an Apache open-source NoSQL database based on Hadoop that gives random access and solid consistency for a lot of unstructured data.
Apache Storm is a distributed, fault-tolerant, open-source computation system that enables you to process data in real-time.
Cloud computing types are service deployment models which let you choose the level of control over your information and types of services you need to provide. There are three main types of cloud computing services, sometimes called the cloud computing stack because they build on top of one another.
The first cloud computing type is infrastructure-as-a-service (IaaS), which is used for Internet-based access to storage and computing power. The most basic category of cloud computing types, IaaS lets you rent IT infrastructure - servers and virtual machines, storage, networks and operating systems - from a cloud provider on a pay-as-you-go basis.
The second cloud computing type is platform-as-a-service (PaaS) which gives developers the tools to build and host web applications. PaaS is designed to give users access to the components they require to quickly develop and operate web or mobile applications over the Internet, without worrying about setting up or managing the underlying infrastructure of servers, storage, networks and databases.
The third cloud computing type is software-as-a-service (SaaS) which is used for web-based applications. SaaS is a method for delivering software applications over the Internet where cloud providers host and manage the software applications making it easier to have the same application on all of your devices at once by accessing it in the cloud.