Basics Of Computer Science
Operating System
    Operating system (OS) this is very useful to the computer and mobiles properly. OS support several kinds of applications of devices to maintain the device properly those applications are following.

1. Disk management
2. Device Management
3. Application Management
4. Memory Allocation
5. CPU Utilizations
6. Memory Storage
7. System resource allocation
8. User Interface

     A computer’s operating system major part of the computer along with telephones, mobile phones and etc without OS support those devices may not work well. When the computer runs on the operating system start work in that device to control following types of hardware and software tools of computer such as processor, memory, disk space, storage techniques and etc. The operating system allows the user to work on the computer with simple tools and techniques. All computers and mobiles work with the security requirements, administration tools, adaptability features and etc but those things managed by the proper designed Operating System of those devices.

Major Categories of OS :

1. GUI (Graphical User Interface)

2. CUI (Command Line User Interface)

GUI (Graphical User Interface) : It is very simple to use and maintain digital functions of devices easily. Hundreds of operating systems are working well in world but some of them more popular. Microsoft Windows family of operating systems is an example of GUI that developed under the Macintosh operating system, but it work simple and interesting than CUI OS.

CUI (Command Line User Interface) : It is little bit hard to learn and use but it provides good security to the devices. The UNIX family of operating systems only designs with CUI tools and techniques. The major advantage of CUI user interface is god security. Non Technical people can’t work with Unix Operating systems and CUI OS’s due to the tough learning process.
Operating System
Types of Operating System

Following are the major types of operating system :

  1. Disk Operating System (DOS)

  2. Windows Operating System

  3. Unix Operating System

Disk Operating System

MS-DOS is one of the oldest and widely used operating system. DOS is a set of computer programs, the major functions of which are file management, allocation of system resources, providing essential features to control hardware devices.

The significant features of DOS :

  It is a single user system.
  It controls program.
  It is machine independence.
  It manages (computer) files.
  It manages input and output system.
  It manages (computer) memory.
  It provides command processing facilities.
  It operates with Assembler.

Types of DOS Commands

Internal Commands : Commands such as DEL, COPY, TYPE, etc. are the internal commands that remain stored in computer memory.

External Commands : Commands like FORMAT, DISKCOPY, etc. are the external commands and remain stored on the disk.

Windows Operating System

The operating system window is the extension of the disk operating system.

It is the most popular and simplest operating system; it can be used by any person who can read and understand basic English, as it does not require any special training.

However, the Windows Operating System requires DOS to run the various application programs initially. Because of this reason, DOS should be installed into the memory and then window can be executed.

The significant elements of Windows Operating System (WOS):

  Graphical User Interface
  Icons (pictures, documents, application, program icons, etc.)
  Start button
  Windows explorer
  Mouse button
  Hardware compatibility
  Software compatibility
  Help, etc.

Unix Operating System

The Unix Operating System is the earliest operating system developed in 1970s. Let us consider the following points relating to the Unix Operating System

It is an operating system that has multitasking features.

It has multiuser computer operating systems.

It runs practically on every sort of hardware and provides stimulus to the open source movement.

It has comparative complex functionality and hence an untrained user cannot use it; only the one who has taken training can use this system.

Another drawback of this system is, it does not give notice or warn about the consequences of a user’s action (whether user’s action is right or wrong).