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Basic Programming Concepts
Developers should have essential knowledge on the following concepts to become skilled in Computer Programming

Algorithm : It is a set of steps or instruction statements to be followed to accomplish specific tasks. A developer can design his algorithm to achieve the desired output. For Example, a recipe to cook a dessert. The algorithm describes the steps to be followed for completing a specific task, but it does not say how to achieve any of the steps.

Source code : Source code is the actual text that is used to construct the program using the language of choice.

Compiler : Compiler is a software program that helps in converting the source code into binary code or byte code, also called machine language, that is easy for a computer to understand, and can be further executed using an interpreter to run the program.

Data Type : Data used in the applications can be of a different type, it can be a whole number (integer), floating-point (decimal point numbers), characters or objects.

Variable : Variable is a space holder for the value stored in the memory and this value can be used in the application. For Example : int year = 1991, where year is a variable.

Conditionals : Knowledge of how to use a certain condition, such that a set of code should execute only if a certain condition is true. In case of a false condition, the program should exit and should not continue the code further.

Array : Array is the variable that stores elements of a similar data type. Knowledge of using an array in coding/programming will be a great benefit.

Loop : Loop is used to execute the series of code until the condition is true.

Function : Functions or methods are used to accomplish a task in programming, a function can take parameters and process them to get the desired output. Functions are used to reuse them whenever required at any place repeatedly.

Class : Class is like a template that contains state and behavior, which corresponding to programming is field and method. In Object-Oriented languages like Java, everything revolves around Class and Object.
Top Computer Programming Languages

The below table enlists the top Computer Programming Languages and their applications in real life.

C Language Operating Systems, Embedded systems, Database management systems, Compiler, gaming and animation.
C++ Banking and trading enterprise software, virtual machines and compilers.
Java Desktop GUI application (AWT or Swing api), Applets, online shopping sites, internet banking, jar files for secured file handling, enterprise applications, mobile applications, gaming software.
Python Web and Internet Development, Scientific and Numeric applications, Desktop GUIs, Business applications. It is widely used in AI and Machine Learning space.
PHP Static and dynamic websites and applications, Server side scripting.
JavaScript Client side and server side validations, DOM handling, developing web elements using jQuery (JS library).
C# Widely used in Enterprise Cross-Applications Development, Web Applications
SQL Querying database, CRUD operations in database programming, creating a stored procedure, triggers, database management.
Visual Basic .NET Windows services, controls, control libraries, Web applications, Web services.