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Cyber Security Interview Questions
The term VPN refers to a Virtual Private Network. It enables you to connect your computer to a private network, establishing an encrypted connection that hides your IP address, allowing you to safely share data and access the web while safeguarding your online identity.
A virtual private network, or VPN, is an encrypted link between a device and a network via the Internet. The encrypted connection aids in the secure transmission of sensitive data. It protects against illegal eavesdropping on the traffic and allows the user to work remotely. In corporate settings, VPN technology is commonly used.
Black Hat hackers, sometimes known as crackers, attempt to obtain unauthorized access to a system in order to disrupt its operations or steal critical data.
Because of its malicious aim, black hat hacking is always illegal, including stealing company data, violating the privacy, causing system damage, and blocking network connection, among other things.
Ethical hackers are also referred to as White hat hackers. As part of penetration testing and vulnerability assessments, they never intend to harm a system; rather, they strive to uncover holes in a computer or network system.
Ethical hacking is not a crime and is one of the most difficult professions in the IT business. Many businesses hire ethical hackers to do penetration tests and vulnerability assessments.
Grey hat hackers combine elements of both black and white hat hacking. They act without malice, but for the sake of amusement, they exploit a security flaw in a computer system or network without the permission or knowledge of the owner.
Their goal is to draw the owners' attention to the flaw in the hope of receiving gratitude or a small reward.

Black, Gray, White Hat Hackers
The following are some of the advantages of putting cybersecurity in place and keeping it up to date:
* Businesses are protected from cyberattacks and data breaches.
* Both data and network security are safeguarded.
* Unauthorized user access is kept to a minimum.
* There is a quicker recovery time after a breach.
* Protection for end-users and endpoint devices.
* Regulatory compliance.
* Operational consistency.
* Developers, partners, consumers, stakeholders, and employees have a higher level of trust in the company's reputation.
It is a tool that shows the packet path. It lists all the points that the packet passes through. Traceroute is used mostly when the packet does not reach the destination. Traceroute is used to check where the connection breaks or stops or to identify the failure.
A Botnet is a group of internet-connected devices such as servers, PCs, mobile devices, etc., that are affected and controlled by malware.
It is used for stealing data, sending spam, performing distributed denial-of-service attack (DDoS attack), and more, and also to enable the user to access the device and its connection.
A null session occurs when a user is not authorized using either a username or a password. It can provide a security concern for apps because it implies that the person making the request is unknown.
Phishing is a sort of cybercrime in which the sender appears to be a legitimate entity such as PayPal, eBay, financial institutions, or friends and coworkers. They send an email, phone call, or text message to a target or target with a link to convince them to click on the link. This link will take users to a fake website where they will be asked to enter sensitive information such as personal information, banking and credit card information, social security numbers, usernames, and passwords. By clicking the link, malware will be installed on the target machines, allowing hackers to remotely control them.
You can protect yourself from phishing attacks by following these guidelines :
* Don't give out important information on websites you don't know.
* Check the site's security.
* Make use of firewalls.
* Use Toolbar for Anti-Phishing
Hashing Encryption
It is a method of converting data to a smaller fixed value known as the key, which is then used to represent the original data. It's the technique of securely encoding data such that only the authorized user with the key or password can get the original data; for everyone else, it seems to be rubbish.
By whatever method, the hash code or key cannot be reverted to the original information. It can only be mapped, and the hash code is compared; if the hash code is the same, the information is identical; otherwise, it is not. It is not possible to get the original data. If we know the encryption key and technique used for encryption, we can easily extract the original data.
In comparison to encryption, it is more secure. In comparison to hashing, it is less secure.
The goal of hashing is to index and retrieve data from a database. The procedure is really quick. Encryption transforms data in order to keep it hidden from others.
The hashed data is usually short and constant in length. It does not increase in size as the length of information increases. The length of the encrypted data is not defined. It expands as the amount of data grows longer.
Brute Force Attack is a method of finding the right credentials by repetitively trying all the permutations and combinations of possible credentials. Brute Force Attacks are automated in most cases where the tool/software automatically tries to log in with a list of possible credentials.
Following is a list of some ways to prevent Brute Force Attacks :
Password Length : The length of a password is an important aspect to make it hard to crack. You can specify to set at least a minimum length for the password. The lengthier the password, the harder it is to find.

Password Complexity : You can include different characters formats in the password to make brute force attacks harder. Using the combination of alpha-numeric keywords along with special characters and upper and lower case characters can increase the password complexity making it difficult to be cracked.

Limiting Login Attempts : You can make the password hard for brute force attacks by setting a limit on login failures. For example, you can set the limit on login failures as 5. So, when there are five consecutive login failures, the system will restrict the user from logging in for some time or send an Email or OTP to log in the next time. Because brute force is an automated process, limiting login attempts will break the brute force process.
Port scanning is the technique administrators, and hackers use to identify the open ports and services available on a host. Hackers use this technique to find information that can be helpful to find flaws and exploit vulnerabilities, and administrators use this technique to verify the security policies of the network.
Following is a list of some most common Port Scanning Techniques :
* Ping Scan
* TCP Half-Open
* TCP Connect
* Stealth Scanning