Internet Of Things Interview Questions
The actual term “Internet of Things (IoT)” was coined by Kevin Ashton in 1999 during his work at Procter & Gamble. 

The Internet of Things (IoT) describes the network of physical objects “things” that are embedded with sensors, software, and other technologies for the purpose of connecting and exchanging data with other devices and systems over the internet. These devices range from ordinary household objects to sophisticated industrial tools.

There are many IoT devices or things available today, including wearables, implants, vehicles, machinery, smartphones, appliances, computing systems, or any other item that can send and receive data. 
Cloud-based storage and computing, Cyber-Physical Systems, and big data networks can all be integrated with IoT. The IoT primarily focuses on expanding internet connectivity from standard devices (such as computers, mobile phones, or tablets) to relatively dumb ones like toasters.
Over the past few years, IoT has become one of the most important technologies of the 21st century. Now that we can connect everyday objects - kitchen appliances, cars, thermostats, baby monitors - to the internet via embedded devices, seamless communication is possible between people, processes, and things.
By means of low-cost computing, the cloud, big data, analytics, and mobile technologies, physical things can share and collect data with minimal human intervention. In this hyperconnected world, digital systems can record, monitor, and adjust each interaction between connected things. The physical world meets the digital world - and they cooperate.
While the idea of IoT has been in existence for a long time, a collection of recent advances in a number of different technologies has made it practical.
Access to low-cost, low-power sensor technology. Affordable and reliable sensors are making IoT technology possible for more manufacturers.

Connectivity. A host of network protocols for the internet has made it easy to connect sensors to the cloud and to other “things” for efficient data transfer.

Cloud computing platforms. The increase in the availability of cloud platforms enables both businesses and consumers to access the infrastructure they need to scale up without actually having to manage it all.

Machine learning and analytics. With advances in machine learning and analytics, along with access to varied and vast amounts of data stored in the cloud, businesses can gather insights faster and more easily. The emergence of these allied technologies continues to push the boundaries of IoT and the data produced by IoT also feeds these technologies.

Conversational artificial intelligence (AI). Advances in neural networks have brought natural-language processing (NLP) to IoT devices (such as digital personal assistants Alexa, Cortana, and Siri) and made them appealing, affordable, and viable for home use.
The  fundamental components of an IoT system are :
Sensors/Devices : Sensors or devices are essential components for gathering real-time data from the environment. Almost all of this information may be complicated in any manner. It may be a basic temperature control sensor or a video feed.

Connectivity : The information gathered is submitted to a cloud infrastructure. The sensors should be linked to the cloud through a variety of communication channels. Mobile or satellite networks, Bluetooth, WI-FI, WAN, and other networking systems are examples of these mediums.

Data Processing : Once the data is collected and transferred to the cloud, the software product processes the information. This method can be as easy as testing the temperature or readings from equipment such as air conditioners or heaters. However, it can also be incredibly challenging, such as detecting objects using computer vision on video.

User Interface : The data must be open to the end-user in any manner, which can be done by setting off alarms on their phones or giving them updates by email or text message. The consumer can sometimes need an app that actively controls their IoT device.
Industrial IoT (IIoT) refers to the application of IoT technology in industrial settings, especially with respect to instrumentation and control of sensors and devices that engage cloud technologies. Refer to thisTitan use case PDF for a good example of IIoT. Recently, industries have used machine-to-machine communication (M2M) to achieve wireless automation and control. But with the emergence of cloud and allied technologies (such as analytics and machine learning), industries can achieve a new automation layer and with it create new revenue and business models. IIoT is sometimes called the fourth wave of the industrial revolution, or Industry 4.0. The following are some common uses for IIoT :
* Smart manufacturing
* Smart power grids
* Smart cities
* Connected logistics
* Smart digital supply chains
* Connected assets and preventive and predictive maintenance
Data security and privacy are major concerns related to IoT. These devices are vulnerable to hacking and cloud endpoints could be used by hackers to attack servers. Software developers and device designers have to ensure adequate security and privacy measures.
An IoT (Internet of Things) system is an advanced automation and analytics system that makes use of networking, big data, sensing, and Artificial Intelligence to provide a complete solution. It provides the following benefits :   
Improved customer engagement : IoT facilitates a better customer experience by automating tasks. In a car, for instance, any issue will be detected automatically by sensors. It will be notified to both the driver and manufacturer.

Technical optimization : IoT has improved technology and made it more efficient. It has turned even old "dumb" devices into "smart" ones by making them able to transmit data over the internet, facilitating communication with people and other IoT-enabled devices. For example, coffee machines, smart toys, smart microwaves, etc.

Ease of Access : IoT has now enabled access to real-time information from (almost) any location. All you need is a smart device connected to the internet.

Improved Insights : Currently we rely on superficial insights to make decisions, but IoT provides real-time insights that lead to more efficient resource management.

New business opportunities : By collecting and analyzing data from the network, you can uncover new business insights and generate new opportunities while reducing operational costs.

Effective Time Management : Overall, the Internet of Things can save you a lot of time. While we commute to work, we can read the latest news on our phones, browse a blog about our favourite hobby, or shop online.

Improved security measures : Using IoT, access control systems can provide additional security to organizations and individuals. As an example, IoT technology in surveillance can assist in improving security standards in an organization, as well as identifying any suspicious activity.
The differences between Internet Of Things(IoT) and Industrial Internet Of Things(IIoT) are : 

Internet Of Things(IoT) :
* It focuses on consumer-oriented gadgets like wearables, home appliances, thermostats, etc. 
* Deals with small-scale networks.
* IoT works on a high volume of data.
* It is less reliable.
* IoT makes consumer’s life more convenient and easier. 
Industrial Internet Of Things(IIoT) : 
* It supports industry-oriented applications like manufacturing, power plants, etc.
* IIoT deals with large-scale networks.
* It handles medium to high range data.
* IIoT is highly reliable.
* It works to increase safety and efficiency in production facilities.
The disadvantages of IoT are :
Security : IoT technology creates an ecosystem of connected devices. However, during this process, the system may offer little authentication control despite sufficient cybersecurity measures.

Privacy : The use of IoT, exposes a substantial amount of personal data, in extreme detail, without the user’s active participation. This creates lots of privacy issues.

Flexibility : There is a huge concern regarding the flexibility of an IoT system. It is mainly regarding integrating with another system as there are many diverse systems involved in the process.

Complexity : The design of the IoT system is also quite complicated. Moreover, it’s deployment and maintenance also not very easy.

Compliance : IoT has its own set of rules and regulations. However, because of its complexity, the task of compliance is quite challenging.
The intuitive facets of IoT devices paired with enhanced network engagement enable IoT to promote versatility, transparency and efficiency in infrastructure planning. IOT also embeds energy-efficient projects to take off. Overall, with the whole array of advantages that IoT brings in, it is possible for the government to work towards building smart cities all across the globe. 
With the help of IoT, clever energy grids, automated waste management systems, smart homes, better security systems, improved traffic management mechanisms, advanced security features, water conservation mechanisms and so much more is possible. The two pronged blessings of artificial intelligence and innovation, IoT has allowed public utilities and urban planning to be highly intuitive. These have triggered the birth of smart homes and smart cities.