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Internet Of Things Interview Questions
The actual term “Internet of Things (IoT)” was coined by Kevin Ashton in 1999 during his work at Procter & Gamble. 

The Internet of Things (IoT) describes the network of physical objects “things” that are embedded with sensors, software, and other technologies for the purpose of connecting and exchanging data with other devices and systems over the internet. These devices range from ordinary household objects to sophisticated industrial tools.

There are many IoT devices or things available today, including wearables, implants, vehicles, machinery, smartphones, appliances, computing systems, or any other item that can send and receive data. 
Cloud-based storage and computing, Cyber-Physical Systems, and big data networks can all be integrated with IoT. The IoT primarily focuses on expanding internet connectivity from standard devices (such as computers, mobile phones, or tablets) to relatively dumb ones like toasters.
Over the past few years, IoT has become one of the most important technologies of the 21st century. Now that we can connect everyday objects - kitchen appliances, cars, thermostats, baby monitors - to the internet via embedded devices, seamless communication is possible between people, processes, and things.
By means of low-cost computing, the cloud, big data, analytics, and mobile technologies, physical things can share and collect data with minimal human intervention. In this hyperconnected world, digital systems can record, monitor, and adjust each interaction between connected things. The physical world meets the digital world - and they cooperate.
While the idea of IoT has been in existence for a long time, a collection of recent advances in a number of different technologies has made it practical.
Access to low-cost, low-power sensor technology. Affordable and reliable sensors are making IoT technology possible for more manufacturers.

Connectivity. A host of network protocols for the internet has made it easy to connect sensors to the cloud and to other “things” for efficient data transfer.

Cloud computing platforms. The increase in the availability of cloud platforms enables both businesses and consumers to access the infrastructure they need to scale up without actually having to manage it all.

Machine learning and analytics. With advances in machine learning and analytics, along with access to varied and vast amounts of data stored in the cloud, businesses can gather insights faster and more easily. The emergence of these allied technologies continues to push the boundaries of IoT and the data produced by IoT also feeds these technologies.

Conversational artificial intelligence (AI). Advances in neural networks have brought natural-language processing (NLP) to IoT devices (such as digital personal assistants Alexa, Cortana, and Siri) and made them appealing, affordable, and viable for home use.
The  fundamental components of an IoT system are :
Sensors/Devices : Sensors or devices are essential components for gathering real-time data from the environment. Almost all of this information may be complicated in any manner. It may be a basic temperature control sensor or a video feed.

Connectivity : The information gathered is submitted to a cloud infrastructure. The sensors should be linked to the cloud through a variety of communication channels. Mobile or satellite networks, Bluetooth, WI-FI, WAN, and other networking systems are examples of these mediums.

Data Processing : Once the data is collected and transferred to the cloud, the software product processes the information. This method can be as easy as testing the temperature or readings from equipment such as air conditioners or heaters. However, it can also be incredibly challenging, such as detecting objects using computer vision on video.

User Interface : The data must be open to the end-user in any manner, which can be done by setting off alarms on their phones or giving them updates by email or text message. The consumer can sometimes need an app that actively controls their IoT device.
Industrial IoT (IIoT) refers to the application of IoT technology in industrial settings, especially with respect to instrumentation and control of sensors and devices that engage cloud technologies. Refer to thisTitan use case PDF for a good example of IIoT. Recently, industries have used machine-to-machine communication (M2M) to achieve wireless automation and control. But with the emergence of cloud and allied technologies (such as analytics and machine learning), industries can achieve a new automation layer and with it create new revenue and business models. IIoT is sometimes called the fourth wave of the industrial revolution, or Industry 4.0. The following are some common uses for IIoT :
* Smart manufacturing
* Smart power grids
* Smart cities
* Connected logistics
* Smart digital supply chains
* Connected assets and preventive and predictive maintenance
Data security and privacy are major concerns related to IoT. These devices are vulnerable to hacking and cloud endpoints could be used by hackers to attack servers. Software developers and device designers have to ensure adequate security and privacy measures.
An IoT (Internet of Things) system is an advanced automation and analytics system that makes use of networking, big data, sensing, and Artificial Intelligence to provide a complete solution. It provides the following benefits :   
Improved customer engagement : IoT facilitates a better customer experience by automating tasks. In a car, for instance, any issue will be detected automatically by sensors. It will be notified to both the driver and manufacturer.

Technical optimization : IoT has improved technology and made it more efficient. It has turned even old "dumb" devices into "smart" ones by making them able to transmit data over the internet, facilitating communication with people and other IoT-enabled devices. For example, coffee machines, smart toys, smart microwaves, etc.

Ease of Access : IoT has now enabled access to real-time information from (almost) any location. All you need is a smart device connected to the internet.

Improved Insights : Currently we rely on superficial insights to make decisions, but IoT provides real-time insights that lead to more efficient resource management.

New business opportunities : By collecting and analyzing data from the network, you can uncover new business insights and generate new opportunities while reducing operational costs.

Effective Time Management : Overall, the Internet of Things can save you a lot of time. While we commute to work, we can read the latest news on our phones, browse a blog about our favourite hobby, or shop online.

Improved security measures : Using IoT, access control systems can provide additional security to organizations and individuals. As an example, IoT technology in surveillance can assist in improving security standards in an organization, as well as identifying any suspicious activity.
The differences between Internet Of Things(IoT) and Industrial Internet Of Things(IIoT) are : 

Internet Of Things(IoT) :
* It focuses on consumer-oriented gadgets like wearables, home appliances, thermostats, etc. 
* Deals with small-scale networks.
* IoT works on a high volume of data.
* It is less reliable.
* IoT makes consumer’s life more convenient and easier. 
Industrial Internet Of Things(IIoT) : 
* It supports industry-oriented applications like manufacturing, power plants, etc.
* IIoT deals with large-scale networks.
* It handles medium to high range data.
* IIoT is highly reliable.
* It works to increase safety and efficiency in production facilities.
The disadvantages of IoT are :
Security : IoT technology creates an ecosystem of connected devices. However, during this process, the system may offer little authentication control despite sufficient cybersecurity measures.

Privacy : The use of IoT, exposes a substantial amount of personal data, in extreme detail, without the user’s active participation. This creates lots of privacy issues.

Flexibility : There is a huge concern regarding the flexibility of an IoT system. It is mainly regarding integrating with another system as there are many diverse systems involved in the process.

Complexity : The design of the IoT system is also quite complicated. Moreover, it’s deployment and maintenance also not very easy.

Compliance : IoT has its own set of rules and regulations. However, because of its complexity, the task of compliance is quite challenging.
The intuitive facets of IoT devices paired with enhanced network engagement enable IoT to promote versatility, transparency and efficiency in infrastructure planning. IOT also embeds energy-efficient projects to take off. Overall, with the whole array of advantages that IoT brings in, it is possible for the government to work towards building smart cities all across the globe. 
With the help of IoT, clever energy grids, automated waste management systems, smart homes, better security systems, improved traffic management mechanisms, advanced security features, water conservation mechanisms and so much more is possible. The two pronged blessings of artificial intelligence and innovation, IoT has allowed public utilities and urban planning to be highly intuitive. These have triggered the birth of smart homes and smart cities.
One of the major advantages of Internet Of Things is that it makes gadgets environment friendly and substantially reduces carbon emission. By engaging in context conscious automation, the IoT gadgets are able to save energy. For instance, refrigerators which switch off when not in use or road light fixtures are able to save almost 40% of electricity.
IoT has transformed healthcare services and diagnostic practises to a large extent. From attaining more precision in testing to making surgeries and implants prompt and efficient, IoT devices in the healthcare industries have largely contributed towards making medical practices more efficient, transparent and affordable. Besides, fitness parameters can be easily tracked these days with fitness bands and smartwatches. This has enhanced the scope of fitness monitoring and we have IoT to thank for it.
In general, the Internet of Things is about connecting devices to the Internet, but how they connect is not always obvious. IoT devices connect and communicate through their technical communication models. An effective communication model shows how the process works and helps one understand how communication can be done. The Internet of Things (IoT) enables people and things (devices) to be connected wherever they are, using any network or service they like.  
Types of communication models : 
Request-Response Model : This communication model is based on the client (IoT Device) making requests and the server responding to those requests. Upon receiving a request, the server decides what response to provide, fetches the requested data, prepares the response, and then sends it back to the client. This model is stateless because the data between requests is not retained, therefore each request is handled independently.
Publisher-Subscriber Model : Publishers, brokers, and consumers are all involved in this communication model. Publishes are the sources of data that send data to topics. The broker manages the topics, and consumers (consume data from topics) subscribe to the topics. Publishers and consumers are unaware of each other. Upon receiving data for a topic from the publisher, the broker forwards it to all subscribed consumers. As a result, brokers are responsible for receiving data from publishers and sending it to the appropriate consumers.
Push-Pull Model : This communication model entails data producers pushing the data into queues, while data consumers pull the data from the queues. Neither producer nor consumer needs to know about each other. The queues help decouple the messages between the consumers and the producers. Also, queues act as a buffer when there is a mismatch between the rate at which producers push data and the rate at which consumers pull it.
Exclusive-Pair Model : Exclusive pairs are full-duplex, bidirectional communication models developed for constant/continuous connections between a client and server. After a connection is established, clients and servers can exchange messages. As long as a client doesn't send a request to close the connection, the connection remains open. The server is aware of every open connection.
Beginners may see BLE (Bluetooth Low Energy) as a type of Bluetooth that uses less power, uses less energy. BLE, or Bluetooth Smart, is a relatively new form of Bluetooth technology that consumes much less power and costs than classic Bluetooth while offering a similar range of communication. 
The Bluetooth Low Energy technology has been developed with the purpose of facilitating the IoT. Generally, the Internet of Things is about connecting devices with each other, usually via a wireless connection, such as Bluetooth low energy to allow them to communicate and share data. With its high energy efficiency, BLE has become a preferred and ideal choice for IoT. IoT enthusiasts and application developers have increasingly adopted Bluetooth LE to connect smart devices.
Many sensors are available for agriculture, including the following :
Airflow - Measures soil's air permeability.
Acoustic - Measures the level of noise from pests.
Chemical - Measures levels of a specific chemical, such as ammonium, potassium or nitrate, or measures such conditions as pH levels or presence of a specific ion.
Electrochemical - Measures the nutrients within the soil.
Humidity - Measures the moisture within the air, such as in a greenhouse.
Soil moisture - Measures the wetness of the soil.
Electromagnetic - Measures the soil's ability to conduct electrical charge, which can be used to determine characteristics such as water content, organic matter or degree of saturation.
A thermocouple sensor is a common type of sensor used to measure temperature. The sensor includes two dissimilar electrical metal conductors joined at one end to form an electrical junction, which is where the temperature is measured. The two metal conductors produce a small voltage that can be interpreted to calculate the temperature. Thermocouples come in multiple types and sizes, are inexpensive to build and are highly versatile. They can also measure a wide range of temperatures, making them well suited for a variety of applications, including scientific research, industrial settings, home appliances etc,.
Pulse Width Modulation (PWM), also referred to as PDM (Pulse Duration Modulation) refers to changing the amount of power that is delivered to a device. PWM is a technique for generating an analog signal from a digital source and is an efficient way to control the amount of energy delivered to a load without wasting any energy. PWM regulates voltage and is therefore used to control brightness in Smart Lighting Systems and also to control motor speed.
MicroPython is a Python implementation, which includes a small subset of its standard library. It can be optimized to run on the ModeMCU microcontroller.
The Raspberry Pi is a low cost, credit-card sized computer that plugs into a computer monitor or TV, and uses a standard keyboard and mouse. It is a capable little device that enables people of all ages to explore computing, and to learn how to program in languages like Scratch and Python. It’s capable of doing everything you’d expect a desktop computer to do, from browsing the internet and playing high-definition video, to making spreadsheets, word-processing, and playing games.
What’s more, the Raspberry Pi  has the ability to interact with the outside world, and has been used in a wide array of digital maker projects, from music machines and parent detectors to weather stations and tweeting birdhouses with infra-red cameras. We want to see the Raspberry Pi being used by kids all over the world to learn to program and understand how computers work.
Arduino is an open-source electronics platform consists of hardware and software with easy to handle characteristics. Arduino boards are mainly a microcontroller that receives input from sensors to control a motor and so on automatically.
GPIO stands for “General purpose input/output”. GPIO pins generally found on the integrated circuit that doesn’t have a particular function. The primary purpose of the GPIO pins are redirecting a signal to a specific component, various features of the GPIO pins are configurable and can be regulated by the software.
MEMS stands for “Micro Electro Mechanical System” is a teeny machine having both the mechanical and electrical components.The physical dimension of the component lies between 1 to 100 micrometres.

Examples :
* ADXL345
* Accelerometer
* piezoelectric sensor
* MPU6050- Gyroscope.
An OSI(Open Systems Interconnection) is a reference model developed by ISO(International Organization for Standardization).
It defines how the system transfers the data via a physical medium to communicate with another system.
OSI Model divided into seven segments or seven-layer where each Layer is responsible for performing particular tasks and transferring the completed tasks to the next Layer for further processing.

Seven layers of the OSI Model are :

Layer 7 : Application Layer
Layer 6 : Presentation Layer
Layer 5 : Session Layer
Layer 4 : Transport Layer
Layer 3 : Network Layer
Layer 2 : Data-Link Layer
Layer 1 :  Physical Layer
IoT Application plays a vital role in Environmental Monitoring. It has broad application. Extreme weather monitoring, Environmental protection, endangered species protection, water safety, commercial farming, and many more. In these applications, various software or tools detect and measure every type of environmental change. 
Air and water pollution : In the current environmental monitoring system, primarily rely on manual labor with advanced instrument and various lab processes for Air and water pollution. IoT induced some advanced technology that reduces manual labor, allowing major sampling, allowing complicated onsite testing.
Commercial Farming : In the current trend, many sophisticated commercial farms have denied advanced technology and biotechnology for some time, Iot Introduces better access to extensive analysis and automation.
The safety of devices and the facts they accumulate, process, and transmit is often referred to as a top problem in our online world. Because the variety of linked objects in the IoT grows, so will the chance of successful intrusions will increase in charges from those incidents.
Cybersecurity includes shielding information structures, their additives and contents, and the networks that join them from intrusions or attacks concerning theft, disruption, damage, or different unauthorized or wrongful actions.
Cyber attacks may also compromise privacy, resulting in access to and exfiltration of identifying or other sensitive information about an individual. For example, an intrusion into a wearable device might permit exfiltration of information about the location, activities, or even the health of the wearer.
Transportation structures are becoming increasingly connected. New motor automobiles are ready with features including worldwide positioning structures (gps) and in-vehicle enjoyment, as well as advanced driver help structures (adas), which utilize sensors inside the vehicle to help the motive force, for example with parking and emergency braking.
IoT has three main parts namely sensors, network connectivity and data storage applications. Sensors either communicate directly with the central server for data storage or communicate via gateway devices. A gateway can handle various wireless interfaces that’s why one gateway can handle multiple technologies and multiple sensors. The typical wireless technologies used widely are Zigbee, Zwave, RFID, NFC etc. gateway interfaces with the cloud using wireless or wired technologies such as Wi-Fi, Mobile or Fiber, DSL.
The IoT hardware system can be constructed using Micro-Controller Units. Choice of Micro-controller depends on the system on chip resources, the power required and interfaces needed as per different sensors and memory requirements.
To finalize the IoT hardware architecture following aspects are required to study :
* Type of sensors/actuators.
* Communication interface type.
* Amount of data to be captured and transmitted.
* A frequency of data transportation.

IoT software architecture is based on open source components like Arduino, Linux (Raspberry Pi)
A barrier to the improvement of IoT is the technical boundaries of the version of the network protocol that is used most widely. IP is the set of rules that computers use to ship and receive statistics via the internet, including a specific address that every connected device or item should have to speak. Model four (ipv4) is presently in widest use. It can accommodate about four billion addresses and its miles near saturation, with few new addresses available in many parts of the sector.
Version 6 (ipv6) allows for a big increase within the wide variety IP addresses. With ipv4, the maximum number of particular addresses, 4.2 billion, is not sufficient to provide even one deal with for every of the 7.3 billion human beings on earth. Ipv6, in an evaluation, will accommodate over 1038 addresses extra than a thousand billion trillion per man or woman.
Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) : Wi-Fi sensor community is the foundation of IoT packages. WSN is a network of motes, fashioned to look at, to take a look at or to monitor bodily parameters of desired utility.
Ex : motes deployed in agricultural land, screen temp-humidity or maybe soil moisture, who gathers statistics and ideal statistics analysis procedure consequences approximately crop yields-high quality or amount.

Internet of Things(IoT) : IoT is a community of bodily objects managed and monitored over the internet. Now just as win, in its application, you will stumble upon the monitoring of physical parameters. But preferred results are little different. IoT is about M2M, it’s far greater than bringing smartness into daily gadgets.
Ex : device hooked in your thermostat monitors surrounding temperature and adjust it to maximum favored placing for.
Due to their compliance with coexistence protocols, Bluegiga and wireless can be used together without interfering. The bluegiga apx4 is based on a 450mhz arm9 processor and supports both Bluetooth and Wi-Fi.
The Internet of Things enhances law enforcement and surveillance, as well as the legal system. The technology increases transparency, distributes relevant information, and prevents unwanted human interference.
Remote monitoring, logged footage of violations and electronic ticketing can also help make effective solutions to issues by using technologies in the workplace. For example, you can replace the light in-person reviews of suspicious activities with remote observation, logged footage of violations, and electronic ticketing. It also eliminates misconduct by eliminating human management and opinion in the case of a few breaches.
Internet of Things is the network of different types of devices that may be portable, wearable and implantable. The effect of advanced technology on the business or the development of the organization is prominent. With the significant enhancement in the latest technology, companies need to adopt the new technology which is in trend to go ahead in the future. It plays a role as a medium to communicate with devices and systems which are severe in real-time. We can say that IoT will have an impact on every stage of our lives because innovation is going to transform technology as well as our lives.      
IoT enabled parking : Parking is a significant problem, primarily in urban areas. The traveller has to spend more time, energy, fuel to find a better parking place. During peak hours, the situation gets worse; the Internet of Things can overcome this problem. New startups have officially executed advanced technology to get rid of these problems in many areas. This startup gives an outlook on all authorized parking spaces in many areas. IoT reduces human effort and allows users to view availability and book a parking spot from their place and even make payment through an electronic wallet. The result is that this process is time-efficient as well as hassle-free.    
Internet of Things (IoT) Enabled Home Automation : Home automation is a vast platform where tech-companies are focusing. It offers various advantages, For example, Imagine your room appliances like your Air conditioning is automatically adjusted the temperature (based on the weather conditions) without your involvement. It looks pretty tempting; this is only possible with the Internet of Things. Right now everyone can’t afford this because it is quite expensive. This technology is only being used in the residences of wealthy people, but with time, the cost of this technology going to reduce, and this technology will be available for everyone.
Advantages of IoT in Home Automaton :
* It saves energy
* It reduces electricity bills
* It reduces human effort
Big data relates to a massive amount of data that can be unstructured, semi-structured and structured. It can extract data for information used in advanced analytics applications and machine learning projects.
Big data  generally described by 3vs concept :
Volume : Previously, collecting data would have been a tough task- but the innovation of new technologies has eased the burden. Nowadays, many organizations collect data from various sources, including social media platforms, business transactions via sensors or machine to machine data.
Velocity : Velocity refers to the speed with wich data generated. Consider an example of social media insights, 500 Million tweets are posted on Twitter every day, 9OO Million photos uploaded on Facebook daily. Big data helps the company to collect the data from the flow of data, and at the same time, frame processes the data so that it doesn’t slow down the process.
Variety : Variety in Big Date Includes Structured, Semi-structured and unstructured data that has the probability of getting generated either by machines or human. For example, ECG reading, Handwritten text, tweets, Emails, etc.
Variety in Big Data can also be defined as the ability to arrange incoming data from various categories.
Contiki is an operating system specifically designed for low power wireless Internet of Things devices having confined memory, bandwidth, and power. It utilizes a moderate design while still packing the essential tools of the present-day working framework.
Basic Applications of Contiki :
* Alarms
* Street lightning
* Sound monitoring
* Radiation monitoring
Various types of antennas designed for IoT devices are :
* Chip Antenna
* PCB Antenna
* Wire Antenna
* Proprietary Antenna
* Whip Antenna
Thingful is a search engine for the Internet of Things. It allows secure interoperability between millions of IoT objects via the Internet. This IOT testing tool also to control how data is used and empowers to take more decisive and valuable decisions.
IoT devises testing types are :
Usability Testing : There are so many devices of different shape and form factors are used by the users. Moreover, the perception also varies from one user to others. That’s why checking the usability of the system is very important in IoT testing.

Compatibility Testing : There are lots of devices that can be connected through the IoT system. These devices have varied software and hardware configuration. Therefore, a possible combination is huge. As a result, checking the compatibility in the IoT system is important.

Reliability and Scalability Testing : Reliability and Scalability is important for building an IoT test environment which involves a simulation of sensors by utilizing virtualization tools and technologies.

Data Integrity Testing : It’s important to check the Data integrity in IoT testing as it requires a large amount of data and its application.

Security testing : In the IoT environment, many users are accessing a massive amount of data. Thus, it is important to validate user via authentication, have data privacy controls as part of security testing.

Performance Testing : Performance testing is important to create a strategic approach for developing and implementing an IoT testing plan.
Internet Protocol Version 6, commonly referred to as IPv6, is an upgrade from IPv4. One of the most significant changes is IPv6 increases the size of IP addresses from 32 bits to 128 bits. Because of its 32-bit limitation, IPv4 can support only about 4.2 billion addresses, which has already proved insufficient. The mounting number of IoT devices and other platforms that use IP addresses requires a system that can handle future addressing needs. The industry designed IPv6 to accommodate trillions of devices, making it well suited for IoT. IPv6 also promises improvements in security and connectivity. It's the additional IP addresses that take center stage, however, which is why many believe that IPv6 will play a pivotal role in the future success of IoT.
The coming wave of 5G networks could impact IoT in a variety of ways :
* Higher bandwidth and faster throughputs will make it possible to support more advanced use cases, especially those that require quicker response times, such as traffic control systems or automated public transportation.

* Organizations can distribute more sensors in order to capture a wider range of information about environmental factors or equipment behavior, resulting in more comprehensive analytics and a greater capacity of automating operations both at the industrial level and consumer level.
* 5G could enable IoT on a more comprehensive scale in areas where it might be otherwise difficult to achieve, helping industries such as healthcare and agriculture.

* The faster throughput and ability to handle data from more sensors will make it easier to establish smart cities, which require a higher saturation of IoT devices.

* Manufacturers will be able to use 5G to better track inventory throughout its lifecycle, as well as better control workflows and optimize operations.

* 5G will enable organizations and governments to respond more quickly and efficiently to different types of incidents, such as medical emergencies, pipeline leaks, fires, traffic accidents, weather events or natural disasters.

* Automobiles can benefit from 5G as cars become more connected, helping to keep them safer, better maintained and more fuel efficient, while also making the autonomous car more of a reality.
Sensors may be used in devices that are not net-connected, while devices need to be connected to the Net with IoT. Yet, sensing is a part of IoT, even if the device is not connected to the Net.
Z-Wave is the leading smart home technology found in millions of products around the world. It is a wireless technology that will not interfere with your Wi-Fi signal and operates on low power. When Z-Wave technology is utilized inside everyday products such as locks and lights, these products become “smart” – giving them the ability to talk to each other and enabling you to control the devices and thus your home, from anywhere. Z-Wave operates at 908.42 MHz in the United States and Canada. For other frequencies check here.
To start, Z-Wave provides peace of mind so you know your home is secure, no matter where you are. A Z-Wave smart home can save you money with energy savings – no more lights being left on or AC running on high when you’re not home. Z-Wave is synonymous with convenience. With the touch of one button you can shut down your house when you leave – lock the doors, turn off lights and close garage door. Z-Wave means security – knowing you’ll receive an alert if there is any trouble at home – water leak, fire alarm, potential break-in, or more.
Z-Wave is a wireless radio frequency technology which operates at 908.42 MHz (in the US & Canada) that lets smart devices talk to and connect with one another. Household products, like lights, door locks and thermostats are made “smart” when Z-Wave connectivity is added inside the product’s design, giving them the capability to communicate and perform the desired functions that you want.
Z-Wave operates wirelessly and securely. The devices can be easily accessed and controlled remotely on your smartphone, tablet or computer so you can control your smart home from anywhere in the world! The Z-Wave hub receives a command from you via your smartphone, tablet, or computer and routes the command to the destination device.
For example, you want to close your garage door. You select that option on the app via your smartphone. No matter where you are in the world and as long as you have internet access, the hub will receive that command and send the command from device to device until it reaches the garage door controller. The smart garage door controller will then close. Once it has closed, it will send a notification back through the devices, to the smart hub, providing you with a notification on your smartphone that the garage door was in fact closed. Z-Wave devices have 2-way communication built in. All of this happens wirelessly without any interruption in your home and no interruption from your Wi-Fi network.
A crystal oscillator is an electronic oscillator that makes use of crystal as a frequency selective element to obtain an inverse piezoelectric effect. It makes use of the mechanical resonance of the vibrating crystal, which has piezoelectric properties, in order to obtain an electric signal with a high-precision frequency. Crystal oscillators are considered superior to ceramic resonators as they have higher stability, higher quality, lower cost and are smaller in size.
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The Internet of everything (IoE) is a conceptual leap that reaches beyond IoT -- with its focus on things -- into an expanded realm of connectivity that incorporates people, process and data, along with things. The concept of IoE originated with Cisco, which stated that the "benefit of IoE is derived from the compound impact of connecting people, process, data and things, and the value this increased connectedness creates as 'everything' comes online." By comparison, IoT refers only to the networked connection of physical objects, but IoE expands this network to include people-to-people and people-to-machine connections. Cisco and other proponents believe that those who harness IoE will be able to capture new value by "connecting the unconnected."
ZigBee is a wireless Technology with IEEE 802.15.4 based high-level communication protocols which can be used to create personal area networks with small, low-power devices for home automation, medical devices, and other low-power low bandwidth needs. Hence, ZigBee is a low-power, low data rate, and close proximity wireless ad hoc network.
In IoT GE Predix, GE stands for “General Electronic”, In Other Words, we can say that IoT GE Predix. It is a Software Platform for the collection and examination of data; generated as sensors attached from the various Instruments(Electrical or Mechanical)  used in the industries such as Healthcare,Aviation, Energy and transportation.
IoT GE Predix produces a cloud-based on PaaS (Platform as a service). It allows Industrial-scale analytics for Performance management and operational development which provides better and faster decision making and an excellent way to interconnect data, machine, and people. Every Layer of the platform has high-security protection. Many different services (DataPrivacy,Authentication,User management,Authorization) help to minimize the risk associated with programs.
GainSpan GS2000 is one such tech which uses both ZigBee and Wi-Fi. It makes optimum use of power by putting the device into energy-saving standby mode when no data transmission is taking place. Only when the device is awaked or checked for connection failure does the high power consumption connection of Wi-Fi is used.
IoT asset tracking refers to the process of using IoT to monitor the location of an organization's physical assets, no matter where they're located or how they're being used. Assets can include anything from delivery vans to medical equipment to construction tools. Rather than try to track these assets manually, a company can use IoT asset tracking to automatically identify the location and movement of each tracked device, helping save time and ensure greater accuracy. At the same time, organizations can use asset tracking to simplify inventory maintenance, improve asset utilization, and optimize workflows and daily operations.
Ensuring the security of an IoT system is a critical aspect of its design, implementation, and operation. Here are some key considerations and best practices for securing an IoT system :

Authentication and Authorization : Every IoT device should have a unique identity, and users should only be able to access devices or data that they are authorized to access.

Encryption : Data sent between IoT devices should be encrypted to ensure that it cannot be intercepted or tampered with during transmission.

Access Control : Access to IoT devices and data should be restricted to authorized users only. This can be accomplished through the use of access control policies and mechanisms.
Firmware Updates : Regular firmware updates should be applied to IoT devices to patch security vulnerabilities and address other issues.

Secure Communication : IoT devices should only communicate with trusted parties using secure communication protocols, such as HTTPS and SSL/TLS.

Data Encryption : Data at rest should be encrypted to prevent unauthorized access in case of a data breach.

Threat Modeling : IoT systems should be designed with security in mind, and a thorough threat model should be developed to identify potential security risks.

Continuous Monitoring : Real-time monitoring of IoT devices and data can help detect security breaches and vulnerabilities as they occur, allowing for rapid response and mitigation.

Physical Security : Physical security of IoT devices should also be taken into consideration, and devices should be physically protected from unauthorized access.
Ensuring the privacy of users in an IoT system is essential as it involves the collection and processing of sensitive personal data. Here are some key considerations and best practices for ensuring the privacy of users in an IoT system :

Data Minimization : Collect only the data that is necessary for the intended purpose and limit the collection of sensitive data as much as possible.

Data Anonymization : Anonymize the data that is collected to prevent it from being linked to a specific individual.

Consent : Obtain explicit and informed consent from users before collecting their personal data.

Access Control : Implement strict access controls to ensure that only authorized personnel have access to user data.

Transparency : Be transparent about what data is being collected, how it will be used, and who it will be shared with.
Data Encryption : Use encryption techniques to secure user data both in transit and at rest.

Data Retention : Define retention policies to ensure that user data is only kept for as long as necessary, and then disposed of securely.

User Rights : Provide users with the right to access, correct, or delete their personal data.

Security : Ensure that the IoT system is secure and protected against unauthorized access or data breaches.

Regular Audit : Conduct regular audits to ensure compliance with privacy regulations and to identify and mitigate potential privacy risks.
The adoption of IoT technology is still facing several challenges that need to be addressed to maximize its potential. Some of the main challenges include:

Interoperability : One of the main challenges is the lack of standardization and interoperability between different IoT devices and systems, making it difficult for devices from different vendors to work together.

Security : IoT devices are vulnerable to cyber attacks, and as the number of connected devices increases, the potential for security breaches also increases.

Privacy : The collection and processing of sensitive personal data raises concerns about privacy, and users are often uncertain about who has access to their data and how it is being used.
Scalability : IoT systems generate vast amounts of data, which can be difficult to manage and process. The cost of storage and data processing can be prohibitive, and the infrastructure needed to support these systems can be challenging to deploy and maintain.

Power Consumption : Many IoT devices are battery-powered and have limited battery life. This means that power consumption needs to be optimized to extend the life of these devices and prevent them from becoming a burden on users.

Cost : The cost of IoT devices, systems, and infrastructure can be prohibitively high, making it difficult to justify their adoption for some use cases.

Lack of Skilled Personnel : IoT systems require a range of skills, including hardware design, software development, data science, and cybersecurity. The shortage of skilled personnel in these areas can make it difficult to implement IoT systems.
Interoperability is one of the major challenges in the adoption of IoT technology. Here are some ways to address the interoperability challenges in an IoT system:

Adopt Standard Protocols : Standard protocols enable IoT devices and systems from different vendors to communicate and work together. The use of standard protocols like MQTT, CoAP, and HTTP can help to address interoperability challenges.

Use an Open Architecture : An open architecture that can accommodate multiple hardware and software components can help to address interoperability challenges. It is essential to use an architecture that is compatible with different hardware, software, and platforms.

Implement API's : APIs provide a way for different devices and systems to communicate with each other. They offer a standardized way of accessing and using different services, which can help to address interoperability challenges.
Use Middleware : Middleware solutions can act as a bridge between different devices and systems, providing an interface that enables communication between them. Middleware can help to abstract the underlying details of different devices and systems, enabling them to work together.

Adopt an IoT Platform : IoT platforms offer a complete solution for managing and integrating IoT devices and systems. These platforms typically provide standard APIs and protocols, enabling different devices and systems to work together.

Develop a Common Data Model : Developing a common data model that all devices and systems can use can help to address interoperability challenges. The data model can define a standard format and structure for data, enabling different devices and systems to work with the same data.
IoT devices generate vast amounts of data that need to be managed and processed effectively to derive meaningful insights. Here are some ways to manage and process the large amounts of data generated by IoT devices :

Edge Computing : Edge computing involves processing data locally on the IoT device or on a nearby server. This can help to reduce the amount of data that needs to be transmitted to the cloud, making data processing more efficient.

Cloud Computing : Cloud computing provides a scalable and cost-effective way to store and process large amounts of data generated by IoT devices. Cloud platforms offer tools for data processing, analysis, and visualization, making it easy to derive insights from the data.

Data Analytics : Data analytics tools enable organizations to extract insights and patterns from the data generated by IoT devices. Techniques like machine learning, deep learning, and artificial intelligence can help to identify patterns and trends that would be difficult to identify manually.
Data Storage : Managing and storing the large amounts of data generated by IoT devices can be challenging. It is essential to use a scalable and secure storage solution that can accommodate the growing volume of data.

Data Visualization : Data visualization tools can help to present data in a meaningful and accessible way. Dashboards, graphs, and charts can help to identify trends and patterns that can inform business decisions.

Data Security : The large amounts of data generated by IoT devices are sensitive and require secure storage and processing. Organizations must ensure that data is encrypted, and access controls are in place to prevent unauthorized access.
IoT technology has the potential to transform various industries, including healthcare, manufacturing, and logistics, by improving efficiency, productivity, and safety. Here are some of the benefits of using IoT technology in these industries:

Healthcare : In the healthcare industry, IoT technology can improve patient care, reduce costs, and enhance operational efficiency. For example, IoT devices can monitor patient health and vital signs, enabling doctors to track their condition remotely. IoT sensors can also monitor equipment, such as medical devices, and alert staff when maintenance is required, improving the reliability and uptime of the equipment.
Manufacturing : IoT technology can help manufacturers optimize production processes, reduce downtime, and improve quality control. IoT sensors can monitor equipment, track inventory, and measure production metrics in real-time, enabling manufacturers to identify areas for improvement and optimize their operations.

Logistics :
In the logistics industry, IoT technology can help companies track and manage inventory, reduce theft and loss, and optimize shipping routes. IoT sensors can monitor the location and condition of goods in transit, enabling companies to manage their supply chain more efficiently and provide better customer service.
IoT applications are rapidly expanding and are impacting various aspects of our daily lives, such as our homes, workplaces, and transportation. Here are some examples of IoT applications and their impact:

Smart Homes : IoT devices such as smart thermostats, smart lighting, and smart security systems are making our homes more comfortable, convenient, and secure. We can control these devices through our smartphones, and they can also learn our preferences and automatically adjust settings to meet our needs.

Wearable Devices : Wearable IoT devices, such as fitness trackers and smartwatches, are transforming the way we monitor our health and fitness. These devices can track our steps, heart rate, sleep, and other vital signs, helping us to make informed decisions about our health and wellness.
Smart Cities : IoT technology is being used to create smart cities that can improve urban living by enhancing public safety, transportation, and energy efficiency. For example, IoT sensors can monitor traffic flow, optimize parking, and reduce energy consumption in buildings.

Industrial IoT : In industrial settings, IoT technology can monitor machinery, optimize production, and improve worker safety. IoT sensors can detect potential issues with machinery, enabling maintenance teams to take action before a breakdown occurs, improving efficiency and reducing downtime.

Connected Cars : IoT technology is making our cars safer, more efficient, and more convenient. Connected cars can communicate with other vehicles, road infrastructure, and even the driver's smartphone, providing real-time traffic information, and enabling features such as remote start and keyless entry.
IoT technology is expected to have a significant impact on job opportunities and the future of work, creating new job roles and transforming existing ones. Here are some ways IoT impacts job opportunities:

New Job Roles : IoT technology requires specialized skills such as data analytics, cybersecurity, and network engineering. As a result, it is creating new job roles in these areas, such as IoT data analysts, IoT security specialists, and IoT network engineers.

Automation : IoT technology can automate repetitive tasks, reducing the need for manual labor in certain industries. For example, in the manufacturing industry, IoT sensors can monitor and control machinery, reducing the need for human operators.

Remote Work : IoT technology can enable remote work, allowing employees to work from home or other remote locations. For example, IoT devices such as smart sensors can enable workers to monitor and control equipment remotely, reducing the need for on-site staff.
Upskilling : IoT technology requires employees to have specialized skills such as data analytics and network engineering. As a result, there is a growing need for upskilling and reskilling programs to prepare the workforce for the jobs of the future.

Overall, the impact of IoT on job opportunities and the future of work will depend on the specific industry and the level of adoption of IoT technology. However, it is clear that IoT technology is creating new job roles, transforming existing ones, and requiring specialized skills and training. As such, organizations and individuals must stay informed about the impact of IoT technology on the workforce and take steps to prepare for the jobs of the future.