Correct Answer : Option (A) - India and France
India and France are maritime nations with thriving maritime economies that include, marine technology and scientific research, fisheries, port and shipping. Both have vast exclusive economic zones, and their fate is inextricably linked to the sea and the ocean.
India and France intend to use the blue economy to propel their respective societies forward while also protecting the environment and coastal and marine biodiversity. Considering this, both nations have inked a roadmap to enhance their bilateral exchanges on the blue economy and forge a common vision of ocean governance based on the rule of law and cooperate on sustainable and resilient coastal and waterways infrastructure. The agreement was signed during External Affairs Minister Dr. S Jaishankar’s three-day visit to France with his French counterpart Jean-Yves Le Drian.
India and France want to contribute to the United Nations Sustainable Development Agenda, which aims to conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas, and marine resources. To that end, they intend to act in accordance with international law, specifically the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, the Paris Climate Agreement, the Convention on Biological Diversity, and the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, as well as the International Maritime Organization’s initial strategy for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from ships. They support the United Nations Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Development (2021-2030).
India and France are aware that the ocean has suffered the harmful effects of global warming and pollution due to human activities which are manifested mainly through acidification phenomena, increased stress on natural mineral and biological resources, fall in fish stocks, displacement, and loss of marine diversity, pollution – including plastic pollution – coastal erosion and rising sea levels..